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Amaral B.,Northern Lisbon Hospital Center | Silva S.,Santarem Hospital | Feijo S.,Northern Lisbon Hospital Center
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia | Year: 2014

Tracheal diverticulum, defined as a benign outpouching of the tracheal wall, is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice. It can be congenital or acquired in origin, and most cases are asymptomatic, typically being diagnosed postmortem. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who was hospitalized after presenting with fever, fatigue, pleuritic chest pain, and a right neck mass complicated by dysphagia. Her medical history was significant: pulmonary emphysema (alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency); bronchiectasis; and thyroidectomy. On physical examination, she presented diminished breath sounds and muffled heart sounds, with a systolic murmur. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory markers, a CT scan showed an air-filled, multilocular mass in the right tracheal wall, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the CT findings. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy failed to reveal any abnormalities. Nevertheless, the patient was diagnosed with tracheal diverticulum. The treatment approach was conservative, consisting mainly of antibiotics. After showing clinical improvement, the patient was discharged. © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia. All rights reserved.

Robalo Cordeiro C.,University of Coimbra | Campos P.,Northern Lisbon Hospital Center | Carvalho L.,University of Coimbra | Campainha S.,Vila Nova Of Gaia Espinho Hospital Center | And 9 more authors.
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia | Year: 2016

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a rare interstitial lung disease included in the Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias group. Although several potential risk factors have been described, it is a progressive fibrosing disease of unknown cause affecting mainly adults over 50 years and associated with a poor prognosis, reflected in a median survival of 2-3 years after diagnosis.The concept of a multidisciplinary working group for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is based on the need to have experienced pulmonologists, radiologists and pathologists in the evaluation and correct treatment of the disease, and requires the use of all available data about individual patients, standardized (largely through High Resolution Computed Tomography and pathology when needed) as well as non-standardized data (laboratory, serology and biomarkers). This approach helps to increase diagnostic accuracy and is an internationally accepted recommendation.In regard to therapy, the situation has changed radically since the publication of the ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT 2011 guidelines on the diagnosis and management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis where it was stressed that no proven therapy exists for this disease.Currently besides non-pharmacological treatment, therapy of complications and comorbidities and palliative care, nintedanib and pirfenidone, two compounds with pleiotropic mechanisms of action, are to date, the two drugs with confirmed efficacy in slowing functional decline and disease progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia.

Vendrell I.,Northern Lisbon Hospital Center | Macedo D.,Northern Lisbon Hospital Center | Alho I.,University of Lisbon | Dionisio M.R.,Northern Lisbon Hospital Center | And 2 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2015

Inflammation is one of the most important causes of the majority of cancer symptoms, including pain, fatigue, cachexia, and anorexia. Cancer pain affects 17 million people worldwide and can be caused by different mediators which act in primary efferent neurons directly or indirectly. Cytokines can be aberrantly produced by cancer and immune system cells and are of particular relevance in pain. Currently, there are very few strategies to control the release of cytokines that seems to be related to cancer pain. Nevertheless, in some cases, targeted drugs are available and in use for other diseases. In this paper, we aim to review the importance of cytokines in cancer pain and targeted strategies that can have an impact on controlling this symptom. © 2015 I. Vendrell et al.

Melancia D.,Central Lisbon Hospital Center | Melancia D.,University of Lisbon | Vicente A.,Central Lisbon Hospital Center | Vicente A.,University of Lisbon | And 6 more authors.
Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology | Year: 2016

Diabetic retinopathy is an increasingly prevalent disease, and a leading contributor to the burden of all-cause blindness worldwide. In addition to retinal changes, choroidal abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes. The first studies concerning this vascular structure were based on histologic, indocyanine angiography and laser Doppler flowmetry techniques, but the development of new optical coherence tomography (OCT) technologies and imaging software for enhanced depth imaging (EDI)-OCT in recent years has made it possible to provide more detailed images of the choroidal anatomy and topography. In diabetic patients, several choroidal changes have been described in the literature throughout the years; the recent focus is choroidal thickness, which is significantly different from that in healthy patients. However, understanding choroidal manifestations of diabetic eye disease remains a real challenge, and this gap is hindering efforts towards better defining choroidal evaluation as a predictive factor for disease evolution and treatment response. This review aims to summarize the recent literature concerning changes in choroidal structure in diabetic patients, the relationship to diabetic retinal disease progression, and finally, the current and potential application of the measurement of variations in choroidal thickness for patient management. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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