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Donnelly D.E.,Northern Ireland Regional Genetics Service | Turnpenny P.,Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital | Turnpenny P.,University of Exeter | McConnell V.P.M.,Northern Ireland Regional Genetics Service
Clinical Dysmorphology

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutations and deletions in the nuclear receptor Set domain-containing protein 1 gene. In general, affected individuals have an advanced bone age, macrocephaly, characteristic facial gestalt and learning difficulties. Genotype-phenotype correlations are unclear. Full penetrance is seen and 95% of cases are de novo. Here, we report a three-generation pedigree, with at least eight affected individuals, shown to harbour the nuclear receptor Set domain-containing protein 1 missense mutation c. 6115C>T. To our knowledge, this is the largest Sotos family reported. The observed phenotype is extremely variable, thus highlighting the clinical heterogeneity that may occur. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins. Source

Clayton-Smith J.,Manchester Academic Health science Center | O'Sullivan J.,Manchester Academic Health science Center | Daly S.,Manchester Academic Health science Center | Bhaskar S.,Manchester Academic Health science Center | And 20 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics

Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome (SBBYSS or Ohdo syndrome) is a multiple anomaly syndrome characterized by severe intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and a mask-like facial appearance. A number of individuals with SBBYSS also have thyroid abnormalities and cleft palate. The condition usually occurs sporadically and is therefore presumed to be due in most cases to new dominant mutations. In individuals with SBBYSS, a whole-exome sequencing approach was used to demonstrate de novo protein-truncating mutations in the highly conserved histone acetyltransferase gene KAT6B (MYST4/MORF)) in three out of four individuals sequenced. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm truncating mutations of KAT6B, clustering in the final exon of the gene in all four individuals and in a further nine persons with typical SBBYSS. Where parental samples were available, the mutations were shown to have occurred de novo. During mammalian development KAT6B is upregulated specifically in the developing central nervous system, facial structures, and limb buds. The phenotypic features seen in the Qkf mouse, a hypomorphic Kat6b mutant, include small eyes, ventrally placed ears and long first digits that mirror the human phenotype. This is a further example of how perturbation of a protein involved in chromatin modification might give rise to a multisystem developmental disorder. © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Source

Dixit A.,Nottingham City Hospital | McKee S.,Northern Ireland Regional Genetics Service | Mansour S.,St Georges, University of London | Mehta S.G.,East Anglian Medical Genetics Service | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Genetics

Williams-Beuren syndrome is a well-known microdeletion syndrome with a recognizable clinical phenotype. The subtle phenotype of the reciprocal microduplication of the Williams-Beuren critical region has been described recently. We report seven further patients, and a transmitting parent, with 7q11.23 microduplication. All our patients had speech delay, autistic features and facial dysmorphism consistent with the published literature. We conclude that the presence of specific dysmorphic features, including straight, neat eyebrows, thin lips and a short philtrum, in our patients with speech delay and autistic features provides further evidence that the children with 7q11.23 microduplication have a recognizable phenotype. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Twigg S.R.F.,Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine | Vorgia E.,Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas | Vorgia E.,University of Crete | Mcgowan S.J.,Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine | And 28 more authors.
Nature Genetics

The extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are key proteins mediating mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling downstream of RAS: phosphorylation of ERK1/2 leads to nuclear uptake and modulation of multiple targets. Here, we show that reduced dosage of ERF, which encodes an inhibitory ETS transcription factor directly bound by ERK1/2 (refs. 2,3,4,5,6,7), causes complex craniosynostosis (premature fusion of the cranial sutures) in humans and mice. Features of this newly recognized clinical disorder include multiple-suture synostosis, craniofacial dysmorphism, Chiari malformation and language delay. Mice with functional Erf levels reduced to ∼30% of normal exhibit postnatal multiple-suture synostosis; by contrast, embryonic calvarial development appears mildly delayed. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and high-throughput sequencing, we find that ERF binds preferentially to elements away from promoters that contain RUNX or AP-1 motifs. This work identifies ERF as a novel regulator of osteogenic stimulation by RAS-ERK signaling, potentially by competing with activating ETS factors in multifactor transcriptional complexes. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Banka S.,University of Manchester | Howard E.,University of Manchester | Bunstone S.,University of Manchester | Chandler K.E.,University of Manchester | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Genetics

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare multi-system disorder that can result in a variety of congenital malformations, typical dysmorphism and variable learning disability. It is caused by MLL2 point mutations in the majority of the cases and, rarely by deletions involving KDM6A. Nearly one third of cases remain unsolved. Here, we expand the known genetic basis of KS by presenting five typical patients with the condition, all of whom have novel MLL2 mutation types- two patients with mosaic small deletions, one with a mosaic whole-gene deletion, one with a multi-exon deletion and one with an intragenic multi-exon duplication. We recommend MLL2 dosage studies for all patients with typical KS, where traditional Sanger sequencing fails to identify mutations. The prevalence of such MLL2 mutations in KS may be comparable with deletions involving KDM6A. These findings may be helpful in understanding the mutational mechanism of MLL2 and the disease mechanism of KS. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

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