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Efstratiou E.,University of Ulster | Hussain A.I.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Nigam P.S.,University of Ulster | Moore J.E.,University of Ulster | And 3 more authors.
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice | Year: 2012

The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) petals against clinical pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of C. officinalis extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms isolated from patients at the Belfast City Hospital (BCH), including bacteria and fungi, using disc diffusion assay. Methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract. Both methanol and ethanol extracts showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Skin tanning, either by exposure to natural sunlight or through use of UV sunbeds, has become a popular practice in the US, where it is estimated that approximately 1 million times per day someone in the US uses UV radiation for skin tanning, equating to 30 million Americans (circa 10% of the US population) who use a tanning bed. As well as exposing the host to periods of UV radiation, such practices also expose commensal skin bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, to such UV radiation. Previous work has indicated that environmental stresses on bacteria may lead to an upregulation of stress responses, in an attempt for the organism to combat the applied stress and remain viable. UV light may act as an environmental stress on bacteria, and so it was the aim of this study to examine the effect of UVc light on the antibiotic susceptibility of commensal skin bacteria, to determine if UV radiation would increase the antibiotic resistance of such skin flora and thus lead to a potential skin flora with increased antibiotic resistance. Previously, it has been shown that UVc light has a greater mutational effect on bacteria compared to lower-energy UV forms, including UVa and UVb light. Therefore, we decided to employ UVc light in our study to amplify the potential for mutational events occurring in skin staphylococci organisms (n=8) including methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (n=2), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n=4), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (Staphylococcus haemolyticus) (n=2) were exposed to varying degrees of sublethal radiation via UVc light, and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) susceptibility was determined by broth dilution assay against three classes of commonly used antibiotics, namely β-lactams (penicillin), macrolides (erythromycin), and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin). There was no significant difference between antibiotic susceptibility before UVc exposure and until maximum sublethal stress, prior to cell death due to fatal UVc exposure with the cells. These results indicate that UV environmental stress/exposure does not upregulate antibiotic resistance, and therefore these data indicate that UVc radiation does not lead to a more antibiotic-resistant population in the staphylococci organisms post-exposure. Source


Reihill J.A.,Queens University of Belfast | Moore J.E.,Northern Ireland Public Health Laboratory | Moore J.E.,University of Ulster | Elborn J.S.,Queens University of Belfast | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis | Year: 2011

Background: The identification of filamentous fungi and/or yeasts in the airway secretions of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) is becoming increasingly prevalent; yet the importance of these organisms in relation to underlying inflammation is poorly defined. Methods: Cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells (CFBE) and human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE) were co-incubated with. Candida albicans whole cells or. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia for 24. h prior to the measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 by ELISA. Results: Treatment of HBE or CFBE with. C. albicans whole cells did not alter cytokine secretion. However treatment of CFBE with. A. fumigatus conidia resulted in a 1.45-fold increase in IL-6 and a 1.65-fold increase in IL-8 secretion in comparison to basal levels; in contrast there was far less secretion from HBE cells. Conclusion: Our data indicate that. A. fumigatus infection modulates a pro-inflammatory response in CF epithelial cells while. C. albicans does not. © 2011. Source


Hussain A.I.,The University of Faisalabad | Hussain A.I.,University of Ulster | Anwar F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Nigam P.S.,University of Ulster | And 6 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial activity of six Lamiaceae essential oils, against pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria. The chemical profiles of essential oils were evaluated by the means of GC and GC-MS. The major constituents of the oils were 1,8-cineol (29.2%), camphor (17.2%), α-pinene (11.5%) in Rosmarinus officinalis, citronellal (20.5%), β- geraniol (17.0%), β-citronellol (11.5%) in Melissa officinalis, 1,8-cineol (27.4%), α-thujone (16.3%), β-thujone (11.2%), borneol (10.4%), camphor (7.98%) in Salvia officinalis, linalool (25.1%), linalyl acetate (22.5%) in Lavandula angustifolia, thymol (52.4%), p-cymene (17.9%) in Thymus vulgaris and Patcholene alcohol (22.7%), α-bulnesene (17.1%), α-guaine (13.8%) in Pogostemon cablin. On quantitative basis, the amounts of 1,8-cineol, citronellal, 1,8-cineol, linalool, thymol and patchouli alcohol, calculated using calibrated curve with pure standard compounds, in the respective essential oils were found to be 28.4, 19.0, 26.7, 23.3, 51.1 and 21.1 g/100 g of oil, respectively. The modified resazurin microtitre-plate assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the essential oils and their principal components. All the essential oils analyzed presented inhibitory effects on most of the strains tested. Thymus vulgaris essential oil showed the highest inhibition. It was concluded that modified resazurin assay could be effectively used for reliable assessment of antibacterial activity of the tested essential oils against several Gram positive and negative bacterial taxa. The present results also demonstrated that Lamiaceae essential oils exhibiting higher antibacterial activity were generally rich in oxygenated monoterpens. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Wilson I.G.,Northern Ireland Public Health Laboratory | Smye M.,Biochemistry Laboratory | Wallace I.J.C.,Tissue Pathology and Molecular Laboratory
MicrobiologyOpen | Year: 2016

Accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025 is required for EC official food control and veterinary laboratories by Regulation (EC) No. 882/2004. Measurements in hospital laboratories and clinics are increasingly accredited to ISO/IEC 15189. Both of these management standards arose from command and control military standards for factory inspection during World War II. They rely on auditing of compliance and have not been validated internally as assessment bodies require of those they accredit. Neither have they been validated to criteria outside their own ideology such as the Cochrane principles of evidence-based medicine which might establish whether any benefit exceeds their cost. We undertook a retrospective meta-audit over 14 years of internal and external laboratory audits that checked compliance with ISO 17025 in a public health laboratory. Most noncompliances arose solely from clauses in the standard and would not affect users. No effect was likely from 91% of these. Fewer than 1% of noncompliances were likely to have consequences for the validity of results or quality of service. The ISO system of compliance auditing has the performance characteristics of a poor screening test. It adds substantially to costs and generates more noise (false positives) than informative signal. Ethical use of resources indicates that management standards should not be used unless proven to deliver the efficacy, effectiveness, and value required of modern healthcare interventions. © 2016 Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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