Northern India Engineering College

Northern, India

Northern India Engineering College

Northern, India

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Tomar A.,Northern India Engineering College | Sood Y.R.,National Institute of Technology Hamirpur | Singh Tomar D.,Prabha Electronics and Automation
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics | Year: 2015

In context of a 132 kV stranded conductor manufacturing plant, a unique automation scheme combining active energy front (AEF) along with variable frequency drives (VFDs) synchronization for achieving virtual electronic shaft aiming for simplified kinematics is implemented. A new design concept of tension control in take-up system and winding pitch control through autotraverse control was developed for unmanned operation. The outcome was optimum line speed and the power consumption linearly varying with increase in line speed, which is the core advantage of using synchronized line speed via VFD. There is no hidden energy loss in the system and the inertia of the whole driven system is also reduced. In case of high-voltage cable, the life expectancy depends upon the uniform pattern of lay length with compactness, and it is a significant achievement in terms of improvement in the product quality. The novelty of this work is the simultaneous implementation of various features in a single working setup. Conventional design of very long shaft attached with huge gearboxes is replaced with a virtual electronic shaft synchronizing seven VFDs attached to a very heavy inertial load. When considering the project size, there should be replacement of the high-maintenance-prone switchgears with AEF and LCL filters coupled with common dc bus; this helps in reducing the overall project cost. Self-controlled clean and quality power [below 3% of total harmonic distortion (THD)] feeding to utility network was achieved. Energy saving with improved power factor and higher efficiency is a significant achievement from this setup. Configurable automation software using the programmable logic control (PLC) and human machine interface (HMI) for flexible production was used as per market requirements (especially for 132-kV conductor sector). The scope of this paper is limited to the overview of implementing the automation scheme, energy savings, harmonics control, and other process control related to plants. The uniqueness of this experimental research project is generation and analysis of basic primary data (from September 2012 to current) and the publication available for this data. All activities from concepts to commissioning were systematically implemented and proved to be techno-economically viable. © 2005-2012 IEEE.


Arti M.K.,Northern India Engineering College
IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference | Year: 2016

We address the problem of channel estimation in a large multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system using pilot symbol aided algorithm in Rayleigh fading environment. Conventional minimum mean square error and minimum variance unbiased based channel estimators require the inversion of covariance matrices, which has computational complexity of the order of N6, where N is the number of antennas at source and destination. When there are hundreds of antennas, the aforementioned approaches are extremely complex. Recently, low complexity decoders based on polynomial expansion are proposed with computational complexity of the order of N4. We propose a very simple scheme of channel estimation in large MIMO system, in which we decompose the channel matrix in 2 × 2 matrices and then we estimate these 2 × 2 matrices in order to reduce the computational complexity to the order of N2 and making the system for practical use. Further, a decoder of OSTBC data is derived by assuming the perfect channel state information (CSI) at the destination; then perfect CSI is replaced by estimated CSI in the decision metric. The expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the received signal-to-noise ratio at the destination node is derived. Using the MGF expressions, we obtain the analytical symbol error rate for the proposed channel estimation based decoder for general OSTBCs with M-ary phase-shift keying modulation symbols. © 2016 IEEE.


Chawla V.,Northern India Engineering College | Saraf S.A.,Babu Banarasi das National Institute of Technology and Management
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to explore the use of glyceryl behenate (GB) as a candidate lipid for the production of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) using the anti-inflammatory drug, aceclofenac, as an example. SLN were produced using the Gasco microemulsion method with three different lipids, namely GB, glyceryl palmitostearate (GP) and cetyl alcohol (CA). The prepared SLN were subjected to determination of entrapment, zeta potential, particle size, in vitro dissolution, entrapment efficiency and biodistribution. Stable SLN of GB having size 245 ± 5 nm were prepared with a polydispersity index of 0.470. The size range was higher with other lipids i.e., CA and GP. It was found that as the drug lipid molar concentration was raised, particles with a smaller size were obtained irrespective of the nature of the lipid. The surfactant poloxamer 188 gave best results when used at a concentration of 2.5% w/v of dispersion. The study recommends GB as a suitable candidate for the production of SLN. © 2010 AOCS.


Shukla P.K.,Northern India Engineering College | Tripathi S.P.,Institute of Engineering and Technology
Proceedings - 2011 5th International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing, ICGEC 2011 | Year: 2011

Obtaining high degree of Interpretability and Accuracy in the design of complex high dimensional fuzzy systems is contradictory in nature. It is well known by Interpretability-Accuracy (I-A) Trade-Off. Several methods have been proposed to find good I-A Trade-Off. These includes Multiobjective Optimization, Context Adaptation, Hierarchical Fuzzy Modeling and other issues related to fuzzy partition, membership functions, rules, rule bases etc. This paper is the survey of different approaches developed regarding the issue of I-A Trade-Off in designing fuzzy systems in the last decade. Also, the techniques for assessing the interpretability and accuracy have been surveyed. © 2011 IEEE.


The maximal ratio combining (MRC) scheme for Shadowed-Rician (SR) fading land mobile satellite (LMS) channels with estimated channel gains is studied, in this paper. It is assumed that satellite contains a single antenna and earth station (ES) has multiple antennas. For this set-up, a maximum-likelihood decoder is derived under assumption that perfect channel state information (CSI) is known; then the perfect CSI is replaced with estimated CSI in decision metric at ES. The MRC scheme for SR fading LMS channels has been studied in existing literature mostly with perfect CSI assumption. We derive approximate closed-form expressions of the probability density function, cumulative distribution, moment generating function (MGF), and analytical diversity order for the MRC based receiver in independent and identically distributed SR fading LMS channels with estimated channel gains. The author also provides approximate closed-form expressions of the outage probability and capacity of the considered scheme with estimated channel gains. Next, the author considers correlated SR fading LMS links and derive approximate bit error rate of the satellite system with estimated channel gains. It is shown from analysis and simulation that channel estimation error and correlation do not affect the diversity order but reduce the capacity of the considered system. © 2015. The Institution of Engineering and Technology.


Arti M.K.,Northern India Engineering College | Bhatnagar M.R.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2015

In this paper, amplify-and-forward (AF)-based cooperation in a multiple-antenna-based wireless communication system is studied. In particular, we address the problem of hop-by-hop beamforming and combining in a dual-hop AF multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) relay network with two antennas at each node over Nakagami-m fading channels for any integer values of m. The beamforming and combining vectors are calculated by using a maximum-eigenvalue-based criterion. A moment-generating-function (mgf)-based approach is used for the analysis. We derive a closed-form expression of mgf of the instantaneous received signal-To-noise ratio (SNR) of the considered cooperative scheme. In addition, diversity order analysis of the beamforming-and-combining-based AF MIMO relay system is performed for three cases. It is deduced on the basis of this paper that the diversity order of the hop-by-hop beamforming and combining in an AF MIMO relay system linearly depends upon the minimum of the Nakagami parameters of both hops. © 1967-2012 IEEE.


Arti M.K.,Northern India Engineering College
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2016

We address the problem of amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in a hybrid satellite-terrestrial communication system with unknown channel gains. A masked destination earth station (ES) receives the signal forwarded by a relaying ES, i.e., from a terrestrial link. There is no direct transmission from the satellite to the destination ES. The satellite-relay ES (satellite link) and relay ES-destination ES (terrestrial link) links are assumed to follow shadowed Rician fading and Nakagami-m fading, respectively. A scheme for channel estimation and detection of transmitted signal from the satellite to the destination ES is proposed. The terrestrial link is estimated separately, whereas the cooperative hybrid link (satellite-relay-destination) is estimated jointly with symbol detection. The average symbol error rates of the M-ary phase-shift keying and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation constellations are derived for the considered hybrid communication system. Moreover, we also derive the analytical diversity order of the considered system with estimated channel gains. It is shown by simulation and analysis that the estimation error does not affect the diversity order of the system. Furthermore, the average and asymptotic capacity of the system is also derived by using the moment-generating function approach. © 2016 IEEE.


Chawla V.,Northern India Engineering College | Saraf S.A.,Babu Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology and Management
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2012

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of aceclofenac were prepared using Taguchi experimental design by Trotta method. The prepared SLN were formulated into a gel preparation, using carbopol 940. Gels were evaluated for drug content, bioadhesion and their stability against change of temperature and shear. The viscosity of prepared gels was found to be temperature independent. Rheological behavior of gels with changing shear was rather complex. Viscosity varied inversely with shear but remained almost constant during short spans of time when shear was kept constant. Viscosity of the gels did not change if shear was not varied. In vitro diffusion studies exhibited an immediate release followed by a sustained release. This could help in maintaining the concentration of bioactives such as aceclofenac in desirable levels at sites of inflammation and injury. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Arti M.K.,Northern India Engineering College | Bhatnagar M.R.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
IEEE Communications Letters | Year: 2014

In this letter, we propose a beamforming and combining scheme for a two-way amplify-and-forward protocol-based communication between two multi-antenna earth stations, via a single antenna satellite relay. Under the shadowed-Rician fading, an approximate expression for the symbol error rate of the scheme is obtained based on the moment generating function (MGF) of the instantaneous received signal-to-noise ratio. The proposed expression of MGF contains finite number of summations of the Meijer-G function. By using an asymptotic property of the Meijer-G function, the analytical diversity order of the proposed scheme is also obtained. It is shown by simulations that the considered two-way satellite relaying scheme can overcome the shadowing with improved diversity by increasing the number of antennas at the earth stations. © 2014 IEEE.


Arti M.K.,Northern India Engineering College
2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop, ICCW 2015 | Year: 2015

We study the problem of amplify-and-forward relaying in a hybrid satellite-terrestrial communication system with imperfect channel gains. Signals are received by masked destination earth station (ES) with the help of a relaying ES, situated at the ground with good line-of-sight. No direct transmission is possible from the satellite to the destination ES. The satellite-relay ES link is assumed to be Shadowed-Rician fading, and relay ES-destination ES (terrestrial link) is assumed to follow Nakagami-m fading. We propose a scheme for channel estimation and detection of channel gains and transmitted signal from the satellite. The estimation of terrestrial-link is performed separately, whereas, the channel estimation of cooperative hybrid link (satellite-relay ES-destination ES) and symbol detection is performed jointly. The average symbol error rate of the considered system for M-ary phase shift keying constellation is derived by using moment generating function (M.G.F.) approach. Moreover, the analytical diversity order of the considered system with estimated channel gains is also derived. It is shown by simulation and analysis that the diversity order of the system is not affected by the estimation errors. By using the expression of M.G.F., the average capacity of the system is also derived. © 2015 IEEE.

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