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Epping, Australia

Ariathianto Y.,Northern Hospital
Australian Family Physician | Year: 2011

Aim: To identify the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the elderly population and to examine associated risk factors, complications and natural history, and whether treatment improves prognosis. Methods: A literature search of MEDLINE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library was undertaken of studies published from 1980 to 2009. A total of 70 articles were identified. Emphasis was given to randomised controlled trials, review articles and more recent publications. Results: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in the elderly, especially among institutionalised or hospitalised patients. Risk factors include cognitive impairment, diabetes mellitus, structural urinary tract abnormalities and indwelling catheters. Antimicrobial therapy does not result in improved survival or genitourinary morbidity and may potentially cause avoidable side effects and the emergence of resistant organisms. Conclusion: Bacteriuria is common in functionally impaired elderly patients. In the absence of symptoms or signs of infection, routine dipstick screening and subsequent antimicrobial therapy is not recommended.

Shepherd S.J.,La Trobe University | Halmos E.,Shepherd Works P L | Glance S.,Northern Hospital
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care | Year: 2014

Purpose of review: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a condition affecting approximately 10-15% of Western populations. The Rome III criteria are applied to many studies to validate the diagnosis of IBS. The low fermentable oligo, di, monosaccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet has been the subject of many robust clinical trials and is now used as the primary dietary therapy internationally. This review examines the current evidence for the role of the low FODMAP diet in IBS. Recent findings: Detailed commentary on original research involving FODMAPs and IBS symptoms from 2013 to 2014 is provided. Summary: The low FODMAP diet has been shown to be an efficacious therapy for reduction of functional gastrointestinal symptoms seen in IBS. Recent publications provide randomized controlled trial and prospective observational evidence in support of the diet for symptom management. The low FODMAP diet appears to be superior to a gluten-free diet in people with self-reported nonceliac gluten sensitivity. Although the low FODMAP diet has not been shown to reduce the prebiotic effect in the colon, total colonic bacterial load was reduced. Further research investigating the potential health implications of both this and the nutritional adequacy of the liberalized low FODMAP diet is required. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Considine J.,Deakin University | Lucas E.,Deakin University | Wunderlich B.,Northern Hospital
Critical Care and Resuscitation | Year: 2012

Objectives: To evaluate the uptake of an emergency department early warning system (ED EWS) for recognition of, and response to, clinical deterioration. Design, setting and participants: A descriptive exploratory study conducted in an urban district hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Systematic sampling was used to identify every 10th patient for whom the ED EWS was activated from May 2009 to May 2011. Main outcome measures: Patient characteristics, ED system data and ED EWS activation characteristics. Results: ED EWS activation occurred in 1.5% of ED patients; 204 patients were included in this pilot study. The median age was 65.1 years (interquartile range [IQR], 47.8-77.5 years), 89.2% of patients were classified as triage category 2 or 3, and 82.4% of patients were seen by medical staff before ED EWS activation. Hypotension (27.7%) and tachycardia (23.7%) were the most common reasons for ED EWS activation. Median duration of clinical instability was 39 minutes (IQR, 5- 129 minutes). Nurses made 93.1% of ED EWS activations. Median time between documenting physiological abnormalities and ED EWS activation was 5 minutes (IQR, 0- 20). Most patients (57.8%) required hospital admission: 4.4% of patients required intensive care unit admission. Conclusions: The ED EWS resulted in at least two formal reports of clinical deterioration in ED patients per day, indicating reasonable uptake by clinicians. A greater understanding of clinical deterioration in ED patients is warranted to inform an evidence-based approach to recognition of, and response to, clinical deterioration in ED patients.

Atan R.,Monash University | Crosbie D.C.A.,Northern Hospital | Bellomo R.,Monash University
Renal Failure | Year: 2013

Background and aims: Hypercytokinemia is believed to be harmful and reducing cytokine levels is considered beneficial. Extracorporeal blood purification (EBP) techniques have been studied for the purpose of cytokine reduction. We aimed to study the efficacy of various EBP techniques for cytokine removal as defined by technical measures. Method: We conducted a systematic search for human clinical trials which focused on technical measures of cytokine removal by EBP techniques. We identified 41 articles and analyzed cytokine removal according to clearance (CL), sieving coefficient (SC), ultrafiltrate (UF) concentration and percentage removed. Results: We identified the following techniques for cytokine removal: standard hemofiltration, high volume hemofiltration (HVHF), high cut-off (HCO) hemofiltration, plasma filtration techniques, and adsorption techniques, ultrafiltration (UF) techniques relating to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), extracorporeal liver support systems and hybrid techniques including combined plasma filtration adsorption. Standard filtration techniques and UF techniques during CPB were generally poor at removing cytokines (median CL for interleukin 6 [IL-6]: 1.09 mL/min, TNF-alpha 0.74 mL/min). High cut-off techniques consistently offered moderate cytokine removal (median CL for IL-6: 26.5 mL/min, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist [IL-1RA]: 40.2 mL/min). Plasma filtration and extracorporeal liver support appear promising but data are few. Only one paper studied combined plasma filtration and adsorption and found low rates of removal. The clinical significance of the cytokine removal achieved with more efficacious techniques is unknown. Conclusion: Human clinical trials indicate that high cut-off hemofiltration techniques, and perhaps plasma filtration and extracorporeal liver support techniques are likely more efficient in removing cytokines than standard techniques. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved.

Obeyesekere M.N.,Northern Hospital
Journal of Atrial Fibrillation | Year: 2014

A concerning proportion of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) with indications for oral anticoagulation (OAC) discontinue OAC or are never prescribed OAC therapy and many AF patients with the highest risk for embolic events off OAC also have the greatest risk for hemorrhagic complications on OACs. Medium-term efficacy and safety data provide evidence that the WATCHMAN device, the most studied device and the only one with randomized and medium-term follow-up data, may be a viable alternative to chronic warfarin therapy in nonvalvular AF patients. In addition to presenting key data pertaining to LAA closure techniques including the WATCHMAN device, this review will discuss crucial WATCHMAN implantation technical points.

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