Northern Haematology and Oncology Group

New South Wales, Australia

Northern Haematology and Oncology Group

New South Wales, Australia
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Mahon K.L.,1 Chris OBrien Lifehouse | Mahon K.L.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | Mahon K.L.,University of New South Wales | Qu W.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | And 21 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Background:Glutathione S-transferase 1 (GSTP1) inactivation is associated with CpG island promoter hypermethylation in the majority of prostate cancers (PCs). This study assessed whether the level of circulating methylated GSTP1 (mGSTP1) in plasma DNA is associated with chemotherapy response and overall survival (OS). Methods:Plasma samples were collected prospectively from a Phase I exploratory cohort of 75 men with castrate-resistant PC (CRPC) and a Phase II independent validation cohort (n=51). mGSTP1 levels in free DNA were measured using a sensitive methylation-specific PCR assay. Results:The Phase I cohort identified that detectable baseline mGSTP1 DNA was associated with poorer OS (HR, 4.2 95% CI 2.1-8.2; P<0.0001). A decrease in mGSTP1 DNA levels after cycle 1 was associated with a PSA response (P=0.008). In the Phase II cohort, baseline mGSTP1 DNA was a stronger predictor of OS than PSA change after 3 months (P=0.02). Undetectable plasma mGSTP1 after one cycle of chemotherapy was associated with PSA response (P=0.007). Conclusions:We identified plasma mGSTP1 DNA as a potential prognostic marker in men with CRPC as well as a potential surrogate therapeutic efficacy marker for chemotherapy and corroborated these findings in an independent Phase II cohort. Prospective Phase III assessment of mGSTP1 levels in plasma DNA is now warranted.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 21 August 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.463 www.bjcancer.com.


Mahon K.L.,Chris oBrien Lifehouse | Mahon K.L.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | Mahon K.L.,University of Sydney | Lin H.-M.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | And 18 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Background:Docetaxel improves symptoms and survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, ∼50% of patients are chemoresistant. This study examined whether changes in cytokine levels predict for docetaxel resistance in vitro and in a clinical cohort.Methods:PC3 cells or their docetaxel-resistant subline (PC3Rx) were co-cultured with U937 monocytes, with and without docetaxel treatment, and cytokine levels were measured. The circulating levels of 28 cytokines were measured pre-/post cycle 1 of docetaxel from 55 men with CRPC, and compared with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response.Results:PC3Rx-U937 co-culture expressed more cytokines, chiefly markers of alternative macrophage differentiation, compared with PC3-U937 co-culture. Docetaxel treatment enhanced cytokine production by PC3Rx-U937 co-culture, while reducing cytokine levels in PC3-U937. In patients, changes in the levels of seven circulating cytokines (macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC1), interleukin (IL)-1ra, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12 and IFNγ) after cycle 1 of docetaxel were associated with progressive disease (all P<0.05). The combination of changes in MIC1, IL-4 and IL-6 most strongly predicted PSA response (P=0.002).Conclusions:In vitro studies suggest docetaxel resistance is mediated, at least in part, by cytokines induced by the interaction between the docetaxel-resistant tumour cells and macrophages. Early changes in circulating cytokine levels were associated with docetaxel resistance in CRPC patients. When considered together, these data suggest a significant role for the inflammatory response and macrophages in the development of docetaxel resistance in CRPC. © 2015 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.


Mahon K.L.,Chris OBrien Lifehouse | Mahon K.L.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | Mahon K.L.,University of Sydney | Qu W.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | And 21 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Background:Glutathione S-transferase 1 (GSTP1) inactivation is associated with CpG island promoter hypermethylation in the majority of prostate cancers (PCs). This study assessed whether the level of circulating methylated GSTP1 (mGSTP1) in plasma DNA is associated with chemotherapy response and overall survival (OS).Methods:Plasma samples were collected prospectively from a Phase I exploratory cohort of 75 men with castrate-resistant PC (CRPC) and a Phase II independent validation cohort (n=51). mGSTP1 levels in free DNA were measured using a sensitive methylation-specific PCR assay.Results:The Phase I cohort identified that detectable baseline mGSTP1 DNA was associated with poorer OS (HR, 4.2 95% CI 2.1-8.2; P<0.0001). A decrease in mGSTP1 DNA levels after cycle 1 was associated with a PSA response (P=0.008). In the Phase II cohort, baseline mGSTP1 DNA was a stronger predictor of OS than PSA change after 3 months (P=0.02). Undetectable plasma mGSTP1 after one cycle of chemotherapy was associated with PSA response (P=0.007).Conclusions:We identified plasma mGSTP1 DNA as a potential prognostic marker in men with CRPC as well as a potential surrogate therapeutic efficacy marker for chemotherapy and corroborated these findings in an independent Phase II cohort. Prospective Phase III assessment of mGSTP1 levels in plasma DNA is now warranted. © 2014 Cancer Research UK.


PubMed | University of New South Wales, Macquarie University, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Monash University and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: British journal of cancer | Year: 2015

Docetaxel improves symptoms and survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, 50% of patients are chemoresistant. This study examined whether changes in cytokine levels predict for docetaxel resistance in vitro and in a clinical cohort.PC3 cells or their docetaxel-resistant subline (PC3Rx) were co-cultured with U937 monocytes, with and without docetaxel treatment, and cytokine levels were measured. The circulating levels of 28 cytokines were measured pre-/post cycle 1 of docetaxel from 55 men with CRPC, and compared with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response.PC3Rx-U937 co-culture expressed more cytokines, chiefly markers of alternative macrophage differentiation, compared with PC3-U937 co-culture. Docetaxel treatment enhanced cytokine production by PC3Rx-U937 co-culture, while reducing cytokine levels in PC3-U937. In patients, changes in the levels of seven circulating cytokines (macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC1), interleukin (IL)-1ra, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12 and IFN) after cycle 1 of docetaxel were associated with progressive disease (all P<0.05). The combination of changes in MIC1, IL-4 and IL-6 most strongly predicted PSA response (P=0.002).In vitro studies suggest docetaxel resistance is mediated, at least in part, by cytokines induced by the interaction between the docetaxel-resistant tumour cells and macrophages. Early changes in circulating cytokine levels were associated with docetaxel resistance in CRPC patients. When considered together, these data suggest a significant role for the inflammatory response and macrophages in the development of docetaxel resistance in CRPC.

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