Fargo, ND, United States
Fargo, ND, United States

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Akhunov E.D.,Kansas State University | Sehgal S.,Kansas State University | Liang H.,Kansas State University | Wang S.,Kansas State University | And 14 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Cycles of whole-genome duplication (WGD) and diploidization are hallmarks of eukaryotic genome evolution and speciation. Polyploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) has had a massive increase in genome size largely due to recent WGDs. How these processes may impact the dynamics of gene evolution was studied by comparing the patterns of gene structure changes, alternative splicing (AS), and codon substitution rates among wheat and model grass genomes. In orthologous gene sets, significantly more acquired and lost exonic sequences were detected in wheat than in model grasses. In wheat, 35% of these gene structure rearrangements resulted in frame-shift mutations and premature termination codons. An increased codon mutation rate in the wheat lineage compared with Brachypodium distachyon was found for 17% of orthologs. The discovery of premature termination codons in 38% of expressed genes was consistent with ongoing pseudogenization of the wheat genome. The rates of AS within the individual wheat subgenomes (21%-25%) were similar to diploid plants. However, we uncovered a high level of AS pattern divergence between the duplicated homeologous copies of genes. Our results are consistent with the accelerated accumulation of AS isoforms, nonsynonymous mutations, and gene structure rearrangements in the wheat lineage, likely due to genetic redundancy created by WGDs. Whereas these processes mostly contribute to the degeneration of a duplicated genome and its diploidization, they have the potential to facilitate the origin of new functional variations, which, upon selection in the evolutionary lineage, may play an important role in the origin of novel traits. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.


Mallik I.,North Dakota State University | Arabiat S.,North Dakota State University | Pasche J.S.,North Dakota State University | Bolton M.D.,Northern Crop Science Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Phytopathology | Year: 2014

Early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, is an economically important foliar disease of potato in several production areas of the United States. Few potato cultivars possess resistance to early blight; therefore, the application of fungicides is the primary means of achieving disease control. Previous work in our laboratory reported resistance to the succinate dehydrogenase-inhibiting (SDHI) fungicide boscalid in this plant pathogen with a concomitant loss of disease control. Two phenotypes were detected, one in which A. solani isolates were moderately resistant to boscalid, the other in which isolates were highly resistant to the fungicide. Resistance in other fungal plant pathogens to SDHI fungicides is known to occur due to amino acid exchanges in the soluble subunit succinate dehydrogenase B (SdhB), C (SdhC), and D (SdhD) proteins. In this study, the AsSdhB, AsSdhC, and AsSdhD genes were analyzed and compared in sensitive (50% effective concentration [EC50] < 5 μg ml -1), moderately resistant (EC50 = 5.1 to 20 μg ml -1), highly resistant (EC50 = 20.1 to 100 μg ml -1), and very highly resistant (EC50 > 100 μg ml-1) A. solani isolates. In total, five mutations were detected, two in each of the AsSdhB and AsSdhD genes and one in the AsSdhC gene. The sequencing of AsSdhB elucidated point mutations cytosine (C) to thymine (T) at nucleotide 990 and adenine (A) to guanine (G) at nucleotide 991, leading to an exchange from histidine to tyrosine (H278Y) or arginine (H278R), respectively, at codon 278. The H278R exchange was detected in 4 of 10 A. solani isolates moderately resistant to boscalid, exhibiting EC50 values of 6 to 8 ìg ml-1. Further genetic analysis also confirmed this mutation in isolates with high and very high EC50 values for boscalid of 28 to 500 ìg ml-1. Subsequent sequencing of AsSdhC and AsSdhD genes confirmed the presence of additional mutations from A to G at nucleotide position 490 in AsSdhC and at nucleotide position 398 in the AsSdhD, conferring H134R and H133R exchanges in AsSdhC and AsSdhD, respectively. The H134R exchange in AsSdhC was observed in A. solani isolates with sensitive, moderate, highly resistant, and very highly resistant boscalid phenotypes, and the AsSdhD H133R exchange was observed in isolates with both moderate and very high EC50 value boscalid phenotypes. Detection and differentiation of point mutations in AsSdhB resulting in H278R and H278Y exchanges in the AsSdhB subunit were facilitated by the development of a mismatch amplification mutation assay. Detection of these two mutations in boscalid-resistant isolates, in addition to mutations in AsSdhC and AsSdhD resulting in an H134R and H133R exchange, respectively, was achieved by the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect and differentiate the sensitive and resistant isolates based on the single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in all three genes. A single A. solani isolate with resistance to boscalid did not contain any of the above-mentioned exchanges but did contain a substitution of aspartate to glutamic acid at amino acid position 123 (D123E) in the AsSdhD subunit. Among A. solani isolates possessing resistance to boscalid, point mutations in AsSdhB were more frequently detected than mutations in genes coding for any other subunit. © 2014 The American Phytopathological Society.


Secor G.A.,North Dakota State University | Rivera-Varas V.,North Dakota State University | Christ D.S.,Institute of Sugar Beet Research | Mathew F.M.,North Dakota State University | And 4 more authors.
Fungal Biology | Year: 2014

This study characterized a novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pathogen from the Red River Valley in north central USA, which was formally named Fusarium secorum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of three loci (translation elongation factor1α, calmodulin, mitochondrial small subunit) and phenotypic data strongly supported the inclusion of F. secorum in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). Phylogenetic analyses identified F. secorum as a sister taxon of F. acutatum and a member of the African subclade of the FFSC. Fusarium secorum produced circinate hyphae sometimes bearing microconidia and abundant corkscrew-shaped hyphae in culture. To assess mycotoxin production potential, 45 typical secondary metabolites were tested in F. secorum rice cultures, but only beauvericin was produced in detectable amounts by each isolate. Results of pathogenicity experiments revealed that F. secorum isolates are able to induce half- and full-leaf yellowing foliar symptoms and vascular necrosis in roots and petioles of sugar beet. Inoculation with F. acutatum did not result in any disease symptoms. The sugar beet disease caused by F. secorum is named Fusarium yellowing decline. Since Fusarium yellowing decline incidence has been increasing in the Red River Valley, disease management options are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The British Mycological Society.


Bolton M.D.,Northern Crop Science Laboratory | Bolton M.D.,North Dakota State University | Rivera-Varas V.,North Dakota State University | del Rio Mendoza L.E.,North Dakota State University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2012

Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) of sugar beet is caused by the fungus Cercospora beticola. CLS management practices include the application of the sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides tetraconazole, difenoconazole, and prothioconazole. Evaluating resistance to DMIs is a major focus for CLS fungicide resistance management. Isolates were collected in 1997 and 1998 (baseline sensitivity to tetraconazole, prothioconazole, or difenoconazole) and 2007 through 2010 from the major sugar-beet-growing regions of Minnesota and North Dakota and assessed for in vitro sensitivity to two or three DMI fungicides. Most (47%) isolates collected in 1997-98 exhibited 50% effective concentration (EC50) values for tetraconazole of <0.01 μg ml-1, whereas no isolates could be found in this EC50 range in 2010. Since 2007, annual median and mean tetraconazole EC50 values have generally been increasing, and the frequency of isolates with EC50 values >0.11 μg ml-1 increased from 2008 to 2010. In contrast, the frequency of isolates with EC50 values for prothioconazole of >1.0 μg ml-1 has been decreasing since 2007. Annual median difenoconazole EC50 values appears to be stable, although annual mean EC50 values generally have been increasing for this fungicide. Although EC50 values are important for gauging fungicide sensitivity trends, a rigorous comparison of the relationship between in vitro EC50 values and loss of fungicide efficacy in planta has not been conducted for C. beticola. To explore this, 12 isolates exhibiting a wide range of tetraconazole EC50 values were inoculated to sugar beet but no tetraconazole was applied. No relationship was found between isolate EC50 value and disease severity. To assess whether EC50 values are related to fungicide efficacy in planta, sugar beet plants were sprayed with various dilutions of Eminent, the commercial formulation of tetraconazole, and subsequently inoculated with isolates that exhibited very low, medium, or high tetraconazole EC50 values. The high EC50 isolate caused significantly more disease than isolates with medium or very low EC50 values at the field application rate and most reduced rates. Because in vitro sensitivity testing is typically carried out with the active ingredient of the commercial fungicide, we investigated whether loss of disease control was the same for tetraconazole as for the commercial product Eminent. The high EC50 isolate caused more disease on plants treated with tetraconazole than Eminent but disease severity was not different between plants inoculated with the very low EC50 isolate.


Friskop A.J.,North Dakota State University | Gulya T.J.,Northern Crop Science Laboratory | Harveson R.M.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Humann R.M.,North Dakota State University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2015

Puccinia helianthi, causal agent of sunflower rust, is a macrocyclic and autoecious pathogen. Widespread sexual reproduction of P. helianthi was documented in North Dakota and Nebraska for the first time in 2008 and has since frequently occurred. Concurrently, an increase in sunflower rust incidence, severity, and subsequent yield loss on sunflower has occurred since 2008. Rust can be managed with resistance genes but determination of virulence phenotypes is important for effective gene deployment and hybrid selection. However, the only P. helianthi virulence data available in the United States was generated prior to 2009 and consisted of aggregate virulence phenotypes determined on bulk field collections. The objective of this study was to determine the phenotypic diversity of P. helianthi in the United States. P. helianthi collections were made from cultivated, volunteer, and wild Helianthus spp. at 104 locations across seven U.S. states and one Canadian province in 2011 and 2012. Virulence phenotypes of 238 single-pustule isolates were determined on the internationally accepted differential set. In total, 29 races were identified, with races 300 and 304 occurring most frequently in 2011 and races 304 and 324 occurring most frequently in 2012. Differences in race prevalence occurred between survey years and across geography but were similar among host types. Four isolates virulent to all genes in the differential set (race 777) were identified. The resistance genes found in differential lines HA-R3 (R4b), MC29 (R2 and R10), and HA-R2 (R5) conferred resistance to 96.6, 83.6, and 78.6% of the isolates tested, respectively. © 2015 The American Phytopathological Society.


Bolton M.D.,Northern Crop Science Laboratory | Birla K.,North Dakota State University | Rivera-Varas V.,North Dakota State University | Rudolph K.D.,North Dakota State University | Secor G.A.,North Dakota State University
Phytopathology | Year: 2012

The hemibiotrophic fungus Cercospora beticola causes leaf spot of sugar beet. Leaf spot control measures include the application of sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides. However, reduced sensitivity to DMIs has been reported recently in the Red River Valley sugar beetgrowing region of North Dakota and Minnesota. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of CbCyp51, which encodes the DMI target enzyme sterol P450 14α-demethylase in C. beticola. CbCyp51 is a 1,632-bp intron-free gene with obvious homology to other fungal Cyp51 genes and is present as a single copy in the C. beticola genome. Five nucleotide haplotypes were identified which encoded three amino acid sequences. Protein variant 1 composed 79% of the sequenced isolates, followed by protein variant 2 that composed 18% of the sequences and a single isolate representative of protein variant 3. Because resistance to DMIs can be related to polymorphism in promoter or coding sequences, sequence diversity was assessed by sequencing >2,440 nucleotides encompassing CbCyp51 coding and flanking regions from isolates with varying EC50 values (effective concentration to reduce growth by 50%) to DMI fungicides. However, no mutations or haplotypes were associated with DMI resistance or sensitivity. No evidence for alternative splicing or differential methylation of CbCyp51 was found that might explain reduced sensitivity to DMIs. However, CbCyp51 was overexpressed in isolates with high EC50 values compared with isolates with low EC50 values. After exposure to tetraconazole, isolates with high EC50 values responded with further induction of CbCyp51, with a positive correlation of CbCyp51 expression and tetraconazole concentration up to 2.5 μg ml-1. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society.


PubMed | Northern Crop Science Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Phytopathology | Year: 2012

The hemibiotrophic fungus Cercospora beticola causes leaf spot of sugar beet. Leaf spot control measures include the application of sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides. However, reduced sensitivity to DMIs has been reported recently in the Red River Valley sugar beet-growing region of North Dakota and Minnesota. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of CbCyp51, which encodes the DMI target enzyme sterol P450 14-demethylase in C. beticola. CbCyp51 is a 1,632-bp intron-free gene with obvious homology to other fungal Cyp51 genes and is present as a single copy in the C. beticola genome. Five nucleotide haplotypes were identified which encoded three amino acid sequences. Protein variant 1 composed 79% of the sequenced isolates, followed by protein variant 2 that composed 18% of the sequences and a single isolate representative of protein variant 3. Because resistance to DMIs can be related to polymorphism in promoter or coding sequences, sequence diversity was assessed by sequencing >2,440 nucleotides encompassing CbCyp51 coding and flanking regions from isolates with varying EC(50) values (effective concentration to reduce growth by 50%) to DMI fungicides. However, no mutations or haplotypes were associated with DMI resistance or sensitivity. No evidence for alternative splicing or differential methylation of CbCyp51 was found that might explain reduced sensitivity to DMIs. However, CbCyp51 was overexpressed in isolates with high EC(50) values compared with isolates with low EC(50) values. After exposure to tetraconazole, isolates with high EC(50) values responded with further induction of CbCyp51, with a positive correlation of CbCyp51 expression and tetraconazole concentration up to 2.5 g ml(-1).

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