Oropeza J.,City of Fort Collins Utilities |
Billica J.A.,Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District |
Elmund K.,City of Fort Collins Utilities
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition 2011 | Year: 2011
Geosmin is a naturally occurring, organic compound that imparts an earthy odor to water. Geosmin is produced by some species of cyanobacteria (blue green algae) and actinomycetes (a filamentous bacteria) and is difficult to remove during the treatment process. Customers are very sensitive to the odor, with some individuals noticing the odor at extremely low concentrations, from 4-5 ug/L. While it does not pose a threat to public health, its detectable presence can give rise to customer concerns about the quality the drinking water. The presence of geosmin in water supply lakes and reservoirs in the U.S., Australia and Europe is well documented, although factors leading to outbreaks are often not well understood. The presence of geosmin in high quality, cold, turbulent, nutrient-poor Rocky Mountain headwaters is unexpected based on the reported experiences of others. The Cache la Poudre (Poudre) River originates in Rocky Mountain National Park on the east side of the Continental Divide and is one of two water sources for the City of Fort Collins, Colorado, Water Treatment Facility (FCWTF). Routine monitoring for geosmin in both FCWTF raw waters began in 2003 and has revealed episodes of elevated geosmin in the City's Poudre River water supply. For utilities that experience episodes of geosmin in source water supplies, an early warning detection and monitoring program for geosmin is a critical tool for protecting drinking water quality, minimizing associated treatment costs and maintaining customer satisfaction. An understanding of geosmin occurrence, sources, transport and fate is essential before watershed activities can be implemented for its control. Following a geosmin outbreak in early 2010, the City of Fort Collins Utilities initiated a geosmin monitoring program on the Mainstem of the Poudre River above the FCWTF intake. This paper outlines the FCU monitoring approach, the key findings, and the factors that have contributed to the program's success to date. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights Reserved.
Zhang Y.,Colorado State University |
Qian Y.,Colorado State University |
Mecham B.,Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District |
Parton W.J.,Colorado State University
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2013
To predict the best management practices for Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) lawns in Colorado, the DAYCENT ecosystem model was parameterized and applied on a turfgrass ecosystem. In this study, field-measured data on clipping yields, leaf N content, evapotranspiration (ET), deep percolation, nitrate leaching, and soil temperature from a 3-yr lysimeter study were used for parameterization and validation. The simulation result for clipping yield was improved compared to the monthly time step CENTURY ecosystem model, with correlation coefficient (r) increased from -0.32 to 0.74. The prediction of ET and deep percolation was acceptable for the 3 yr. The long-term irrigation and fertilization effects on Kentucky bluegrass biomass and soil C and N were also examined. We predicted a 50% reduction in the annual net production as irrigation decreases from 100% potential evapotranspiration (PET) to 60% PET in this semiarid region. The simulation result suggests that the annual fertilization rates should be gradually reduced for both moderately and highly managed lawns with increasing age of the turfgrass stand. © 2013 by the American Society of Agronomy, 5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711. All rights reserved.
Taghvaeian S.,Colorado State University |
Chavez J.L.,Colorado State University |
Hattendorf M.J.,Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District |
Crookston M.A.,Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District
Remote Sensing | Year: 2013
Optical and thermal remote sensing data were acquired at ground level over several turfgrass species under different soil and irrigation treatments in northern Colorado, USA. Three vegetation indices (VIs), estimated based on surface spectral reflectance, were sensitive to the effect of reduced water application on turfgrass quality. The temperature-based Grass Water Stress Index (GWSI) was also estimated by developing non-transpiring and non-water-stressed baselines. The VIs and the GWSI were all consistent in (i) having a non-linear relationship with the water application depth; and, (ii) revealing that the sensitivity of studied species to water availability increased in order from warm season mix to Poa pratensis L. and then Festuca spp.. Implemented soil preparation treatments had no significant effect on turfgrass quality and water stress. The differences between GWSI-based estimates of water use and the results of a complex surface energy balance model (METRIC) were not statistically significant, suggesting that the empirical GWSI method could provide similar results if the baselines are accurately developed under the local conditions of the study area. © 2013 by the authors.
Brouwer C.,Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District
Pipelines 2014: From Underground to the Forefront of Innovation and Sustainability - Proceedings of the Pipelines 2014 Conference | Year: 2014
The Southern Water Supply Project (SWSP) is a system of water transmission pipelines that convey raw water to 10 municipal water providers in northern Colorado. The SWSP is owned, operated, and maintained by Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District (Northern Water). The project consists of 110 mi of tape-wrapped, mortar-lined steel pipe ranging in diameter from 45 in. to 16 in. with design pressures up to 350 psi. The first phase of the project was put into service in 1995. While the initial pipeline was sized to deliver water by gravity, rapid population growth during the late 1990s and 2000s required adding a series of pump stations to boost the system capacity. SWSP has now been delivering water for 18 years. During this time, the methods for monitoring, operating, and maintaining this important transmission pipeline have evolved as experience has been gained. The project has a sophisticated SCADA system that monitors and controls the system and deliveries to the water providers. Operations and maintenance staff regularly monitor the cathodic protection system and regularly maintain the appurtenant structures throughout the system. The positive result of these proactive actions has been a highly reliable system that has virtually no unscheduled downtime. This paper will describe the SWSP, discuss the operations and maintenance of the system, and give perspectives on lessons learned after 18 years of operations. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.