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Gill A.J.,Northern Cancer Translational Research Unit | Gill A.J.,University of Sydney

The genes for the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD are encoded in the autosome. The proteins are assembled in the mitochondria to form the mitochondrial complex 2, a key respiratory enzyme which links the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. Thirty percent of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) are hereditary and perhaps as many as half of these familial cases are caused by germline mutations of the SDH subunits. Negative immunohistochemical staining for the SDHB subunit identifies PHEO/PGL associated with germline mutation of any of the mitochondrial complex 2 components and can be used to triage formal genetic testing of all PHEO/PGL for SDH mutations. PHEO/PGL associated with SDHA mutation also show negative staining for SDHA as well as SDHB. A unique subgroup of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are driven by mitochondrial complex 2 dysfunction. These SDH deficient GISTs can also be definitively identified by negative staining for SDHB and show distinct clinical and morphological features including frequent onset in childhood and young adulthood, gastric location, a tendency to multifocality, absence of KIT and PDGFRA mutations, a prognosis not predicted by size and mitotic rate and a tendency to indolent behaviour of metastases. Some of these SDH deficient GISTs are driven by classical SDH mutations, but the precise mechanisms of tumourigenesis in many (including those associated with the Carney triad) remain unknown. Germline SDHB mutation is associated with a newly recognised type of renal carcinoma which commonly but not always demonstrates distinctive morphology and can also be recognised by negative staining for SDHB. Immunohistochemistry for SDHB therefore has emerged as a useful tool to recognise these distinct neoplasias driven by mito-chondrial complex 2 dysfunction and to triage formal genetic testing for the associated syndromes. © 2012 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Source

Dwight T.,Kolling Institute of Medical Research | Dwight T.,University of Sydney | Mann K.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Benn D.E.,Kolling Institute of Medical Research | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

Context: Reports of the coexistence of pituitary adenomas and pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma are uncommon. Recently germline mutations in 2 of the genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase, SDHC and SDHD, were associated with pituitary tumors. Objective: Our aim was to determine whether the development of a pituitary adenoma was associated with SDHA mutation. Patients: A 46-year-old female presented with carotid body paraganglioma (proband). Subsequently the proband's son was diagnosed with a nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma at age 30 years. Results: An immunohistochemical analysis of the resected paraganglioma and pituitary adenoma revealed the loss of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B and succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA) expression in both tumors, with the preservation of staining in nonneoplastic tissue. Mutation analysis showed a novel SDHA mutation (c.1873C>T, p.His625Tyr) in the germline of the proband as well as in the proband's son. In the paraganglioma of the proband, in addition to the germline mutation, a somatic mutation was observed (c.1865G>A, p.Trp622*). In the pituitary adenoma of the proband's son, loss of SDHA immunoreactivity was paradoxically accompanied by loss of the mutant allele. Conclusions: This is the first report of a pituitary adenoma arising in the setting of germline SDHA mutation. The loss of SDHA protein expression in both the paraganglioma (proband) and pituitary adenoma (proband's son) argues strongly for a causative role of SDHA mutation. This report further strengthens the link between pituitary neoplasia and germline SDH mutation. Although pituitary adenomas appear rare among patients carrying SDH subunit mutations, they may have been underrecognized due to the low penetrance of disease and lack of systematic surveillance. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society. Source

Dwight T.,Kolling Institute of Medical Research | Dwight T.,University of Sydney | Benn D.E.,Kolling Institute of Medical Research | Benn D.E.,University of Sydney | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology

Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (SDH-deficient GISTs) are a unique class of GIST defined by negative immunohistochemical staining for succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB). SDH-deficient GISTs show distinctive clinical and pathologic features including absence of KIT and PDGFRA mutations, exclusive gastric location, common lymph node metastasis, a prognosis not predicted by size and mitotic rate, and indolent behavior of metastases. They may be syndromal with some being associated with the Carney Triad or germline SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, or SDHD mutations (Carney-Stratakis syndrome). It is normally recommended that genetic testing for SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD be offered whenever an SDH-deficient GIST is encountered. However, testing for all 4 genes is burdensome and beyond the means of most centers. In this study we performed SDHA mutation and immunohistochemical analyses for SDHA on 10 SDH-deficient GISTs. Three showed negative staining for SDHA, and all of these were associated with germline SDHA mutations. In 2 tumors, 3 novel mutations were identified (p.Gln54X, p.Thr267Met, and c.1663+3G>C), none of which have previously been reported in GISTs or other SDH-associated tumors. Seven showed positive staining for SDHA and were not associated with SDHA mutation. In conclusion, 30% of SDH-deficient GISTs in this study were associated with germline SDHA mutation. Negative staining for SDHA can be used to triage formal genetic testing for SDHA when an SDH-deficient GIST is encountered. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Chou A.,St. Vincents Hospital | Toon C.,Royal North Shore Hospital | Toon C.,Northern Cancer Translational Research Unit | Toon C.,University of Sydney | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers of Hormone Research

von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal-dominant familial cancer syndrome associated with mutations of the VHL tumor suppressor gene (3p25-26). Its estimated incidence ranges from 1 in 36,000 to 1 in 53,000 with a penetrance of up to 95% by age 60. Genotype-phenotype correlation divides VHL into two broad clinical subtypes. Type 1 VHL is predominantly associated with large deletion or truncation mutations which result in an encoded protein with very little or no activity. It is associated with retinal and CNS hemangioblastoma and renal cell carcinoma but not pheochromocytoma. Type 2 is usually associated with missense mutations encoding a protein with limited activity and includes pheochromocytoma. It is further classified into three other subtypes (2A, 2B, 2C) based on the presence of hemangioblastoma and renal cell carcinoma. Visceral cysts in the kidney, pancreas and epididymis, nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors which often show distinctive clear cell cytology, endolymphatic sac tumors and head and neck paragangliomas are well recognized but less common presenting features. Surveillance of carriers can reduce the burden of disease and is best performed in specialist referral centers with due consideration given to both the complex molecular pathogenesis and psychosocial aspects of the disease. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Chou A.,SydPath | Chen J.,Royal North Shore Hospital | Clarkson A.,Royal North Shore Hospital | Samra J.S.,Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery Unit | And 8 more authors.
Modern Pathology

Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) demonstrate unique pathological and clinical features, including the absence of activating mutations of KIT and PDGFRA, and primary resistance to imatinib. They arise exclusively in the stomach and account for 5-7.5% of all adult stomach GISTs and the great majority of these tumors in childhood. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) overexpression has been associated with wild-type and pediatric GISTs. We propose that IGF1R overexpression is a feature of succinate dehydrogenase-deficient GISTs as a group. We assessed succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit B (SDHB) and IGF1R expression by immunohistochemistry in eight known succinate dehydrogenase-deficient GISTs, three GISTs arising in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1 syndrome and 40 unselected GISTs. Selected KIT and PDGFRA exons were amplified and sequenced from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples. All eight succinate dehydrogenase-deficient tumors were wild-type for KIT and PDGFRA, succinate dehydrogenase B negative and demonstrated IGF1R overexpression. The three neurofibromatosis-related tumors were succinate dehydrogenase B positive and IGF1R negative. Of the 40 unselected upper GISTs, five were wild-type for KIT and PDGFRA in the selected exons. Two of the wild-type GISTs were succinate dehydrogenase B negative and showed IGF1R overexpression and three were succinate dehydrogenase B positive and IGF1R negative. We conclude that IGF1R overexpression is a feature of succinate dehydrogenase deficient GIST as a group, rather than pediatric or wild-type GIST per se. Therefore, IGF1R inhibition represents a potential rational therapeutic approach in this recently recognized subgroup of GIST. © 2012 USCAP, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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