Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy

Winnellie, Australia

Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy

Winnellie, Australia
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Muzari M.O.,Cairns and Hinterland Hospital & Health Services | Devine G.,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute | Davis J.,Cairns and Hinterland Hospital & Health Services | Crunkhorn B.,Cairns and Hinterland Hospital & Health Services | And 7 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2017

Background: The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses and is a highly invasive and aggressive biter. Established populations of this species were first recognised in Australia in 2005 when they were discovered on islands in the Torres Strait, between mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea. A control program was implemented with the original goal of eliminating Ae. albopictus from the Torres Strait. We describe the evolution of management strategies that provide a template for Ae. albopictus control that can be adopted elsewhere. Methodology / Principal findings: The control strategy implemented between 2005 and 2008 targeted larval habitats using source reduction, insect-growth regulator and pyrethroid insecticide to control larvae and adults in the containers. However, the infrequency of insecticide reapplication, the continual accumulation and replacement of containers, and imminent re-introduction of mosquitoes through people’s movement from elsewhere compromised the program. Consequently, in 2009 the objective of the program changed from elimination to quarantine, with the goal of preventing Ae albopictus from infesting Thursday and Horn islands, which are the transport hubs connecting the Torres Strait to mainland Australia. However, larval control strategies did not prevent the species establishing on these islands in 2010. Thereafter, an additional strategy adopted by the quarantine program in early 2011 was harborage spraying, whereby the vegetated, well shaded resting sites of adult Ae. albopictus were treated with a residual pyrethroid insecticide. Inclusion of this additional measure led to a 97% decline in Ae. albopictus numbers within two years. In addition, the frequency of container treatment was increased to five weeks between treatments, compared to an average of 8 weeks that occurred in the earlier iterations of the program. By 2015 and 2016, Ae. albopictus populations on the two islands were undetectable in 70–90% of surveys conducted. Importantly, a comprehensive surveillance network in selected strategic areas has not identified established populations of this species on the Australian mainland. Conclusions / Significance: The program has successfully reduced Ae. albopictus populations on Thursday Island and Horn Island to levels where it is undetectable in up to 90% of surveys, and has largely removed the risk of mainland establishment via that route. The vector management strategies adopted in the later years of the program have been demonstrably successful and provide a practical management framework for dengue, chikungunya or Zika virus outbreaks vectored by Ae. albopictus. As of June 2016, Ae. albopictus had not established on the Australian mainland and this program has likely contributed significantly to this outcome. © 2017 Muzari et al.

Anderson C.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Low-Choy S.,University of Canberra | Low-Choy S.,Queensland University of Technology | Whittle P.,Queensland University of Technology | And 7 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2017

Australia is an island nation and a primary producer of agricultural and horticultural products. There is a large diversity of plant biosecurity threats which could adversely impact on Australia's production and exports. Surveillance has traditionally been used to monitor pests and optimise production. Increasingly surveillance is being used for early detection of exotic incursions, demonstration of eradication of incursions and pest freedom from exotic or endemic pests. These newer uses of surveillance utilise general and specific surveillance: surveillance data is maintained in electronic databases. Specific surveillance is a targeted surveillance search used by industry or state regulators for a specific pest to support pest freedom or other trade standards. The plant biosecurity surveillance cycle shows the flow of surveillance operations. In this paper, this cycle is demonstrated by case studies including pre border and the northern Australian at-border surveillance for the Australian-Asian interface. Within Australia, the multiple plant pest surveillance program was established in most capital cities where there are high flows of population and produce. As an industry example, the cotton industry surveillance program, particularly for cotton leaf curl, demonstrates how plant biosecurity surveillance operates within an industry. Asiatic citrus canker is another example of industry pertinent surveillance. Finally, surveillance for the purpose of declaring pest freedom areas is reviewed using fruit flies and currant lettuce aphid as examples. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Cuttell L.,University of Queensland | Cookson B.,Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy | Jackson L.A.,Biosecurity Queensland | Gray C.,University of Queensland | Traub R.J.,University of Queensland
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2012

Multiple Trichinella species are reported from the Australasian region although mainland Australia has never confirmed an indigenous case of Trichinella infection in humans or animals. Wildlife surveys in high-risk regions are essential to truly determine the presence or absence of Trichinella, but in mainland Australia are largely lacking. In this study, a survey was conducted in wild pigs from mainland Australia's Cape York Peninsula and Torres Strait region for the presence of Trichinella, given the proximity of a Trichinella papuae reservoir in nearby PNG. We report the detection of a Trichinella infection in a pig from an Australian island in the Torres Strait, a narrow waterway that separates the islands of New Guinea and continental Australia. The larvae were characterised as T. papuae (Kikori strain) by PCR and sequence analysis. No Trichinella parasites were found in any pigs from the Cape York Peninsula. These results highlight the link the Torres Strait may play in providing a passage for introduction of Trichinella parasites from the Australasian region to the Australian mainland. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Bellis G.A.,Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy | Donaldson J.F.,83 Mills Road | Quintao V.,Directorate of Quarantine and Biosecurity | Rice A.,Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy | And 2 more authors.
Austral Entomology | Year: 2014

Examination of Delphacini holdings in Australian insect collections and comparison with material from overseas collections has revealed several species not previously recorded from Australia, Timor Leste and/or Papua New Guinea. Newly recorded species from Australia are Anchodelphax olenus Fennah, Cemus sauteri (Muir), Falcotoya auriniaFennah, Hagamiodes fuscicaudata (Muir), Horcoma colorata lacteipennis (Muir), Latistria placitus (van Duzee), Nemetor sabinusFennah, Nilaparvata bakeri (Muir), Nilaparvata myersi (Muir), Numata corporaali (Muir), Nycheuma coctum (Yang), Perkinsiella bakeri (Muir), Rhombotoya pseudonigripennis (Muir), Tagosodes pusanus (Distant), Toya bridwelli (Muir). Newly recorded species from Timor Leste are Falcotoya aurinia, Horcoma colorata lacteipennis, Latistria placitus, Nycheuma coctum and Tagosodes pusanus. Newly recorded species from Papua New Guinea are Hagamiodes fuscicaudata and Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén). An updated checklist of Australian Delphacini is provided. [Correction added on 19 December 2013, after first online publication: 'Laodelphax striatellus' has been removed from the list of newly recorded species.] © 2013 Australian Entomological Society.

Miyata S.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Kato H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Davis R.,Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy | Smith M.W.,Bundaberg Research Station | And 2 more authors.
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' is the most widespread of the three species of 'Ca. Liberibacter' that cause citrus greening disease (huanglongbing). To ascertain the phylogenetic relationships among Indian isolates that have higher diversity in the 16S rDNA than Asian isolates of this species, we collected symptomatic leaves from Northeast India, Papua New Guinea and Timor-Leste (East Timor) and detected 'Ca. L. asiaticus' by PCR using primers specific for nusG-rplK genes and 16S rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis with 16S rDNA sequences and single nucleotide polymorphisms of the omp gene region revealed that the Northeast Indian isolates were genetically closer to Asian-common isolates from Japan, Taiwan, and Vietnam than to Indian isolates reported previously. Thus, the Asian-common strains of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' are apparently also present in Northeast India. © 2010 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer.

Katoh H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Davis R.,Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy | Smith M.W.,Bundaberg Research Station | Weinert M.,Center for Tropical Agriculture | Iwanami T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2012

Japanese isolates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' have been shown to be clearly differentiated by simple sequence repeat (SSR) profiles at four loci. In this study, 25 SSR loci, including these four loci, were selected from the whole-genome sequence and were used to differentiate non-Japanese samples of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' (13 Indian, 3 East Timorese, 1 Papuan and 8 Floridian samples). Out of the 25 SSR loci, 13 were polymorphic. Dendrogram analysis using SSR loci showed that the clusters were mostly consistent with the geographical origins of the isolates. When single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were searched around these 25 loci, only the upstream region of locus 091 exhibited polymorphism. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the SNPs in the upstream region of locus 091 showed that Floridian samples were clustered into one group as shown by dendrogram analysis using SSR loci. The differences in nucleotide sequences were not associated with differences in the citrus hosts (lime, mandarin, lemon and sour orange) from which the isolates were originally derived. © 2012 Association of Applied Biologists.

Onyango M.G.,CSIRO | Onyango M.G.,Deakin University | Aitken N.C.,Australian National University | Jack C.,Australian National University | And 9 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2016

Background: The advent of genotyping by Next Generation Sequencing has enabled rapid discovery of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and high throughput genotyping of large populations at an affordable cost. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS), a reduced representation library sequencing method, allows highly multiplexed sequencing of genomic subsets. This method has limitations for small organisms with low amounts of genomic DNA, such as the bluetongue virus (BTV) vectors, Culicoides midges. Results: This study employed the GBS method to isolate SNP markers de novo from whole genome amplified Culicoides brevitarsis genomic DNA. The individuals were collected from regions representing two different Australian patterns of BTV strain distribution: the Northern Territory (NT) and the east coast. We isolated 8145 SNPs using GBS. Phylogenetic analysis conducted using the filtered 3263 SNPs revealed the presence of a distinct C. brevitarsis sub-population in the NT and this was confirmed by analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Two loci showed a very strong signal for selection and were unique to the NT population. Bayesian analysis with STRUCTURE indicated a possible two-population cluster. Conclusions: The results suggest that genotyping vectors with high density markers in combination with biological and environmental data is useful. However, more extensive sampling over a wider spatial and temporal range is needed. The presence of sub-structure in populations and loci under natural selection indicates the need for further investigation of the role of vectors in shaping the two Australian systems of BTV transmission. The described workflow is transferable to genotyping of small, non-model organisms, including arthropod vectors of pathogens of economic and medical importance. © 2016 The Author(s).

PubMed | Graham Center for Agricultural Innovation, University of Queensland, Kenya International Livestock Research Institute, Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Veterinary research | Year: 2015

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a major pathogen of ruminants that is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Australian BTV serotypes have origins in Asia and are distributed across the continent into two distinct episystems, one in the north and another in the east. Culicoides brevitarsis is the major vector of BTV in Australia and is distributed across the entire geographic range of the virus. Here, we describe the isolation and use of DNA microsatellites and gauge their ability to determine population genetic connectivity of C. brevitarsis within Australia and with countries to the north. Eleven DNA microsatellite markers were isolated using a novel genomic enrichment method and identified as useful for genetic analyses of sampled populations in Australia, northern Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Timor-Leste. Significant (P<0.05) population genetic subdivision was observed between all paired regions, though the highest levels of genetic sub-division involved pair-wise tests with PNG (PNG vs. Australia (FST=0.120) and PNG vs. Timor-Leste (FST=0.095)). Analysis of multi-locus allelic distributions using STRUCTURE identified a most probable two-cluster population model, which separated PNG specimens from a cluster containing specimens from Timor-Leste and Australia. The source of incursions of this species in Australia is more likely to be Timor-Leste than PNG. Future incursions of BTV positive C. brevitarsis into Australia may be genetically identified to their source populations using these microsatellite loci. The vectors panmictic genetic structure within Australia cannot explain the differential geographic distribution of BTV serotypes.

Eagles D.,CSIRO | Eagles D.,University of Queensland | Melville L.,Khan Research Laboratories | Weir R.,Khan Research Laboratories | And 5 more authors.
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2014

Background: Previous studies investigating long-distance, wind-borne dispersal of Culicoides have utilised outbreaks of clinical disease (passive surveillance) to assess the relationship between incursion and dispersal event. In this study, species of exotic Culicoides and isolates of novel bluetongue viruses, collected as part of an active arbovirus surveillance program, were used for the first time to assess dispersal into an endemic region.Results: A plausible dispersal event was determined for five of the six cases examined. These include exotic Culicoides specimens for which a possible dispersal event was identified within the range of two days - three weeks prior to their collection and novel bluetongue viruses for which a dispersal event was identified between one week and two months prior to their detection in cattle. The source location varied, but ranged from Lombok, in eastern Indonesia, to Timor-Leste and southern Papua New Guinea.Conclusions: Where bluetongue virus is endemic, the concurrent use of an atmospheric dispersal model alongside existing arbovirus and Culicoides surveillance may help guide the strategic use of limited surveillance resources as well as contribute to continued model validation and refinement. Further, the value of active surveillance systems in evaluating models for long-distance dispersal is highlighted, particularly in endemic regions where knowledge of background virus and vector status is beneficial. © 2014 Eagles et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

McTaggart A.R.,Khan Research Laboratories | Shuey L.S.,Khan Research Laboratories | McKenna S.G.,Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy | Davis R.I.,Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy | Shivas R.G.,Khan Research Laboratories
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

A specimen of downy mildew on leaves of Sphagneticola trilobata found in northern Queensland was identified by a systematic approach as a novel species of Plasmopara. A new species, Plasmopara sphagneticolae, is proposed for this specimen, which differs from other species of Plasmopara by morphology, host range, and sequence data from nuclear-ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA. Plasmopara sphagneticolae, together with P. halstedii, are downy mildews found on host species in the tribe Heliantheae (Asteraceae). Plasmopara halstedii causes downy mildew on Helianthus annuus, and is not present on sunflower in Australia. Phylogenetic analysis of the large subunit region of ribosomal DNA showed that P. sphagneticolae was sister to P. halstedii on sunflower. © 2014, Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

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