Northern Arizona University is a public university located in Flagstaff, Arizona, United States. It is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, and has 36 satellite campuses in the state of Arizona. The university offers both undergraduate and graduate degrees.As of fall 2014, 27,715 students were enrolled, 20,134 at the Flagstaff campus. The average cost of tuition and fees for a full-time, Arizona resident undergraduate student for two semesters is $9,692. NAU offers Flagstaff undergraduate students the Pledge Program that guarantees the same tuition rate for four years. For the Fall 2013 school year, out-of-state undergraduates will pay an estimated $22,094 for tuition and fees. NAU also participates in the Western Undergraduate Exchange Program, which offers lower tuition rates for students from the Western United States. WUE tuition rates for fall 2013 are $12,680.The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education classifies NAU as a research university with high research activity. NAU is governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. Wikipedia.
Shuster S.M.,Northern Arizona University
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013
Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are successful at multiple mating also sire most or all of each of their mates' offspring, i.e. only when Cov(♂)(m,o), is positive. Condition 2 is the pattern of female reproductive life-history; specifically, whether female mating number, m, covaries with female offspring number, o. Only semelparity does not erode sexual selection, whereas iteroparity (i.e. when Cov(♀)(m,o), is positive) always increases the variance in offspring numbers among females, which always decreases the intensity of sexual selection on males. To document the covariance between mating number and offspring number for each sex, it is necessary to assign progeny to all parents, as well as identify mating and non-mating individuals. To document significant fitness gains by females through iteroparity, it is necessary to determine the relative magnitudes of male as well as female contributions to the total variance in relative fitness. We show how such data can be collected, how often they are collected, and we explain the circumstances in which selection favouring multiple mating by females can be strong or weak. Source
Johnson N.C.,Northern Arizona University
New Phytologist | Year: 2010
Contents Summary Despite the fact that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations are among the most ancient, abundant and important symbioses in terrestrial ecosystems, there are currently few unifying theories that can be used to help understand the factors that control their structure and function. This review explores how a stoichiometric perspective facilitates integration of three complementary ecological and evolutionary models of mycorrhizal structure and function. AM symbiotic function should be governed by the relative availability of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (trade balance model) and allocation to plant and fungal structures should depend on the availabilities of these resources (functional equilibrium model). Moreover, in an evolutionary framework, communities of plants and AM fungi are predicted to adapt to each other and their local soil environment (co-adaptation model). Anthropogenic enrichment of essential resources in the environment is known to impact AM symbioses. A more predictive theory of AM structure and function will help us to better understand how these impacts may influence plant communities and ecosystem properties. © 2009 New Phytologist. Source
Northern Arizona University | Date: 2014-10-07
Described herein are DNA primer sequences designed for the determination of gene or transcript information from Anuran species, and which may be used in studies for developmental and/or toxicity testing and for environmental toxicology or ecological assessment. Also described herein is a rapid, sensitive, high-throughput assay useful for supporting potential risk assessment across vertebrate clades, and that is also useful for evaluation of complex contaminant mixtures.
Northern Arizona University | Date: 2013-02-19
Described are procedures that promote the accumulation and release of intracellular lipid bodies from zygospores of single-celled alga. This disclosure describes procedures for manipulating the progression or synchronization of the algaes life cycle, and for simplifying lipid extraction by promoting spontaneous release of intracellular lipid reserves. The approach is relevant to the commercial production of biodiesel and food supplements derived from fatty acids.
Northern Arizona University | Date: 2013-04-24
Disclosed herein are devices, systems and methods for simultaneously conducting multiple assays on a liquid sample for the presence of, and/or quantification of, analytes in the liquid sample. The device, which is referred to herein as a multi-assay cartridge or multi-strip assay cartridge (MSC), may be used in a system comprised of the cartridge and a reading device or reader for reading the assays in the cartridge.