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Tahlequah, OK, United States

Northeastern State University is a public university with its main campus located in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, United States, at the foot of the Ozark Mountains. The university also has two other campuses in Muskogee and Broken Arrow. Northeastern is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of Oklahoma as well as one of the oldest institutions of higher learning west of the Mississippi River. Tahlequah is home to the capital of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma and about 25 percent of the students at NSU identify themselves as American Indian. The university has many courses focused on Native American linguistics, and offers Cherokee language Education as a major. Cherokee can be studied as a second language, and some classes are taught in Cherokee for first language speakers as well. Wikipedia.

West R.W.,Northeastern State University

Observers viewed a model imaged on an LCD monitor in 3-D or 2-D as she gazed at points along a horizontally oriented meter stick from a distance of 80 cm. Her head was either straight or turned 20° to the side, and for each head orientation, her gaze was straight, 10°, or 20° to the side, with her eyes individually open, both open, or both closed. For images in which both eyes were closed, the observers pointed along the same meter stick to where they judged her head to be pointed. When one or both eyes were open they judged where she appeared to be gazing. Gaze from the 2-D images agreed with previous studies. A comparison of the results from the 2-D versus 3-D images showed that the judgments were virtually identical for gaze from the straight versus turned head in all combinations of straight versus averted gaze, eyes individually open versus both open. The judgments were also virtually identical for head point. This suggests that 2-D studies that have used procedures similar to those described in this study may be applied to real world 3-D gaze perception. © The Author(s) 2015. Source

Bried J.T.,Albany Pine Bush Preserve Commission | Jog S.K.,Northeastern State University | Matthews J.W.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Ecological Indicators

A common concern regarding the popular Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) method is whether the site floristic quality scores change with natural temporal and site-specific variability. The more ignored question is whether this background variability will confound the index of human disturbance. Using non-forested seasonal wetlands in the northeastern United States, we tested if two common indices of site floristic quality (FQAI, Mean CoC) provide clear signals of site condition relative to gradients of wetland area and surface water depth, and consistent signals across time of year (early vs. late growing season), geomorphic setting (connected vs. isolated), and vegetation community type (pine barrens vernal pond, wet sedge meadow, shrub swamp). Mean CoC is the coefficient of conservatism (a qualitative estimate of species' sensitivity to human disturbance) averaged across the native and exotic taxa observed at a given site, and FQAI is the traditional Floristic Quality Assessment Index where Mean CoC is multiplied by square root of taxa richness. The FQAI did not linearly correspond to the site condition gradient and thus it could not be evaluated. Mean CoC was clearly associated with site condition, with no interference from wetland area or water level (based on computer-intensive resampling of linear model fit). Mean CoC also varied consistently with site condition between the surveys, geomorphic settings, and community types (based on computer-intensive resampling of linear model slope). However, connected wetlands showed inherently greater Mean CoC than isolated wetlands, suggesting a comparison of floristic quality between these categories would not be prudent. Overall this study suggests that FQA in the form of Mean CoC may withstand natural variability in certain non-forested wetland systems. Instead of assuming FQA is overly sensitive to natural variability, we recommend further efforts to identify situations in which FQA is robust. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Johnson C.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Coleman A.,Northeastern State University
Annals of the Association of American Geographers

Societies have historically sought to spatialize difference-to other-even within the boundaries of supposedly unified polities. Drawing on previous scholarship on the spatialization of difference in published case studies, we examine the dialectical relationship between the formation and institutionalization of regions, on the one hand, and the nation-building process more broadly on the Other. Certain regions become repositories for undesirable national traits as part of a dialectical process of nation and region building. The processes of othering are rarely as linear and tidy as proposed in some current formulations of the theory; rather, othering involves a host of concomitant processes that work together to produce economically and culturally differentiated regions. The processes by which particular places or regions become "othered" are not only interesting in the abstract but also carry with them enduring material consequences. To demonstrate this effect, we visit two historical case studies that examine the formation of internal Others in nineteenth-century Europe (Italy and Germany). © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Yau Y.-Y.,Northeastern State University | Stewart C.N.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
BMC Biotechnology

Selectable marker genes (SMGs) and selection agents are useful tools in the production of transgenic plants by selecting transformed cells from a matrix consisting of mostly untransformed cells. Most SMGs express protein products that confer antibiotic- or herbicide resistance traits, and typically reside in the end product of genetically-modified (GM) plants. The presence of these genes in GM plants, and subsequently in food, feed and the environment, are of concern and subject to special government regulation in many countries. The presence of SMGs in GM plants might also, in some cases, result in a metabolic burden for the host plants. Their use also prevents the re-use of the same SMG when a second transformation scheme is needed to be performed on the transgenic host. In recent years, several strategies have been developed to remove SMGs from GM products while retaining the transgenes of interest. This review describes the existing strategies for SMG removal, including the implementation of site specific recombination systems, TALENs and ZFNs. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of existing SMG-removal strategies and explores possible future research directions for SMG removal including emerging technologies for increased precision for genome modification. © 2013 Yau and Stewart; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Wang Y.,Northeastern State University | Yau Y.-Y.,University of California at Berkeley | Perkins-Balding D.,Macon State College | Thomson J.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Plant Cell Reports

The use of recombinases for genomic engineering is no longer a new technology. In fact, this technology has entered its third decade since the initial discovery that recombinases function in heterologous systems (Sauer in Mol Cell Biol 7(6):2087-2096, 1987). The random insertion of a transgene into a plant genome by traditional methods generates unpredictable expression patterns. This feature of transgenesis makes screening for functional lines with predictable expression labor intensive and time consuming. Furthermore, an antibiotic resistance gene is often left in the final product and the potential escape of such resistance markers into the environment and their potential consumption raises consumer concern. The use of site-specific recombination technology in plant genome manipulation has been demonstrated to effectively resolve complex transgene insertions to single copy, remove unwanted DNA, and precisely insert DNA into known genomic target sites. Recombinases have also been demonstrated capable of site-specific recombination within non-nuclear targets, such as the plastid genome of tobacco. Here, we review multiple uses of site-specific recombination and their application toward plant genomic engineering. We also provide alternative strategies for the combined use of multiple site-specific recombinase systems for genome engineering to precisely insert transgenes into a pre-determined locus, and removal of unwanted selectable marker genes. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

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