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File Jr. T.M.,Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy
American Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common and potentially serious illness with significant human and economic costs to society. The recent collaborative statement from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Thoracic Society (ATS) represents the most up-to-date evidence-based guidelines from North America, incorporating important advances in the management of patients with CAP. The cases presented in this review highlight many of the recent recommendations from the IDSA/ATS guidelines. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Rosenthal K.S.,Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy
Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice | Year: 2011

Fecal transplants are being used to repopulate the colon as a treatment for antibiotic-associated chronic diarrhea. In addition to treating the diarrhea, the transferred microbiota carries functions that affect the metabolism, immune system, and potentially, the behavior of the recipient. Screening of fecal donors may be just as necessary as screening organ donors to ensure that unwanted traits are not transferred with the transplant. Copyright © 2011 by National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. Source

Piatt E.E.,Community Pharmacy | Munetz M.R.,Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy | Ritter C.,Community Pharmacy
Psychiatric Services | Year: 2010

Objectives: The primary aim of this retrospective study of death records was to determine whether there were significant differences in years of potential life lost (YPLL) between decedents with serious and persistent mental illness at a community mental health center (N=647) and decedents in the general population (N=15,517) after the analysis adjusted for sociodemographic factors and cause of death. Methods: Clinical case management files from a community mental health center were matched to state death records from 1998 to 2004 to identify decedents being treated for a serious and persistent mental illness. Differences in leading causes of death and YPLL were calculated with descriptive and multivariate methods. Results: Mean±SD YPLL for the decedents with serious and persistent mental illness was 14.5±10.6, compared with 10.3±6.7 for the general population. Heart disease was the leading cause of death for both groups. Mean differences in YPLL after adjustment for gender, race, marital status, and education ranged from 1.7 years for chronic lower respiratory disease to 13.1 years for accidents and were significant for every leading cause of death. Differences in cause of death did not explain the difference in YPLL. Suicide, cancer, accidents, liver disease, and septicemia were differentially associated with YPLL for persons with serious and persistent mental illness. Conclusions: Suicide, cancer, accidents, liver disease, and septicemia increased premature mortality among persons with serious and persistent mental illness. Along with ongoing suicide prevention programs, efforts to integrate primary and psychiatric care should focus on these preventable causes of early death. Source

Thoppil R.J.,Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy | Bishayee A.,Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy | Bishayee A.,Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy
World Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2011

Despite significant advances in medicine, liver cancer, predominantly hepatocellular carcinoma remains a major cause of death in the United States as well as the rest of the world. As limited treatment options are currently available to patients with liver cancer, novel preventive control and effective therapeutic approaches are considered to be reasonable and decisive measures to combat this disease. Several naturally occurring dietary and non-dietary phytochemicals have shown enormous potential in the prevention and treatment of several cancers, especially those of the gastrointestinal tract. Terpenoids, the largest group of phytochemicals, traditionally used for medicinal purposes in India and China, are currently being explored as anticancer agents in clinical trials. Terpenoids (also called "isoprenoids") are secondary metabolites occurring in most organisms, particularly plants. More than 40 000 individual terpenoids are known to exist in nature with new compounds being discovered every year. A large number of terpenoids exhibit cytotoxicity against a variety of tumor cells and cancer preventive as well as anticancer efficacy in preclinical animal models. This review critically examines the potential role of naturally occurring terpenoids, from diverse origins, in the chemoprevention and treatment of liver tumors. Both in vitro and in vivo effects of these agents and related cellular and molecular mechanisms are highlighted. Potential challenges and future directions involved in the advancement of these promising natural compounds in the chemoprevention and therapy of human liver cancer are also discussed. © 2011 Baishideng. Source

Grimsley J.M.S.,Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy | Monaghan J.J.M.,University of Nottingham | Wenstrup J.J.,Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Adult mice are highly vocal animals, with both males and females vocalizing in same sex and cross sex social encounters. Mouse pups are also highly vocal, producing isolation vocalizations when they are cold or removed from the nest. This study examined patterns in the development of pup isolation vocalizations, and compared these to adult vocalizations. In three litters of CBA/CaJ mice, we recorded isolation vocalizations at ages postnatal day 5 (p5), p7, p9, p11, and p13. Adult vocalizations were obtained in a variety of social situations. Altogether, 28,384 discrete vocal signals were recorded using high-frequency-sensitive equipment and analyzed for syllable type, spectral and temporal features, and the temporal sequencing within bouts. We found that pups produced all but one of the 11 syllable types recorded from adults. The proportions of syllable types changed developmentally, but even the youngest pups produced complex syllables with frequency-time variations. When all syllable types were pooled together for analysis, changes in the peak frequency or the duration of syllables were small, although significant, from p5 through p13. However, individual syllable types showed different, large patterns of change over development, requiring analysis of each syllable type separately. Most adult syllables were substantially lower in frequency and shorter in duration. As pups aged, the complexity of vocal bouts increased, with a greater tendency to switch between syllable types. Vocal bouts from older animals, p13 and adult, had significantly more sequential structure than those from younger mice. Overall, these results demonstrate substantial changes in social vocalizations with age. Future studies are required to identify whether these changes result from developmental processes affecting the vocal tract or control of vocalization, or from vocal learning. To provide a tool for further research, we developed a MATLAB program that generates bouts of vocalizations that correspond to mice of different ages. © 2011 Grimsley et al. Source

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