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Tagaris E.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Tagaris E.,Greek National Center For Scientific Research | Liao K.-J.,Georgia Institute of Technology | DeLucia A.J.,East Tennessee State University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2010

The relative contributions of PM2.5 and ozone precursor emissions to air pollution-related premature mortality modulated by climate change are estimated for the U.S. using sensitivities of air pollutants to precursor emissions and health outcomes for 2001 and 2050. Result suggests that states with high emission rates and significant premature mortality increases induced by PM2.5 will substantially benefit in the future from SO2, anthropogenic NOX and NH3 emissions reductions while states with premature mortality increases induced by O3 will benefit mainly from anthropogenic NOX emissions reduction. Much of the increase in premature mortality expected from climate changeinduced pollutant increases can be offset by targeting a specific precursor emission in most states based on the modeling approach followed here. © 2010 by the authors. Source


Miller P.,Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management NESCAUM
EM: Air and Waste Management Association's Magazine for Environmental Managers | Year: 2012

A new national ozone secondary standard based on a multi-month growing season would be a departure from previous short-term ozone standards in the United States. Such a standard would be better connected to protection of agricultural crops and forests suffering damage from long-term cumulative exposures, which is not directly addressed by health-based sub-daily peak standards. While the science basis is strong, internal dynamics within the administrative branch has been a historically high barrier to establishing a welfare-based ozone standard of a different form from the health-based standard. Now, with an alignment of robust scientific support, an expert advisory panel recommendation, and a federal court decision, the promulgation of a new and distinctly different national ozone secondary standard appears likely, but not a certainty in light of past events. Copyright 2011 Air & Waste Management Association. Source


Su J.G.,University of California at Berkeley | Allen G.,Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management NESCAUM | Miller P.J.,Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management NESCAUM | Brauer M.,University of British Columbia
Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health | Year: 2013

Residential wood combustion is an important contributor to heating-season ambient fine particle concentrations in many regions of North America. We applied a measurement and modeling approach to evaluate the effect of wood combustion on local and regional air quality in a non-urban setting with complex topography-the Adirondacks region of New York State. Spatially resolved topographic, census, property assessment, and emissions survey data were used to model spatial variability of woodsmoke fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) emissions across the region. This spatial emissions model was then used to locate fixed-site monitors and to design a mobile-monitoring campaign. Measurements using a dual-wavelength AethalometerTM enabled the discrimination of woodsmoke from other combustion sources. By comparing these Aethalometer measurements with nephelometer measurements of PM2. 5 we determined that the majority of the PM2. 5 measured in the Adirondacks during calm, cold winter nights came from wood combustion. We used the measurements of spatial variability in woodsmoke PM2. 5 concentrations, the spatial emissions estimates, and additional geographic covariates to develop a spatial model of woodsmoke PM2. 5. Considering those living in areas in the upper tertile of modeled woodsmoke concentrations as "exposed," the model estimated that about 20% (~130,000 people) of the population in the study area were exposed to elevated woodsmoke. Further, the model demonstrates that U. S. census information can be combined with additional survey and property assessment data to provide a broadly applicable estimate of woodsmoke spatial patterns and population exposure. This approach is a promising method for screening potential woodsmoke problems, including those areas with complex terrains. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Chandrasekaran S.R.,Clarkson University | Hopke P.K.,Clarkson University | Rector L.,Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management NESCAUM | Allen G.,Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management NESCAUM | Lin L.,Clarkson University
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2012

The chemical composition of 23 wood chip samples and 132 wood pellet samples manufactured in the United States and Canada were analyzed for their energy and chemical properties and compared to German standards for pellet quality. The pellet samples obtained from various locations across northern New York and New England included 100 different manufacturers and duplicate samples of some brands. The calorific value, moisture content, and ash content of the samples were determined according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods. Sulfate and chloride samples were prepared using ASTM methods and analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). The elemental compositions of the ashed wood samples were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mercury was measured by direct analysis of wood samples. The distributions of the sample characteristics, such as heating value, ash content, moisture content, ions, and heavy elements, are presented. Major ash-forming elements were Ca, K, Al, Mg, and Fe. Although heavy elements are found naturally in wood and bark, some pellet samples had unusually high concentrations of heavy elements. This contamination was likely because of inclusion of extraneous materials, such as scrap or painted wood, bark or leaves, and other possible contaminants, during pellet manufacturing processes. Most of the commercially available wood pellets of this study would meet German and European industrial standards. However, standards for elemental compositions of commercial wood pellets and chips need to be established in the United States to exclude extraneous materials. The promulgation of such standards would reduce environmental problems related to air emissions and ash used as fertilizers for agriculture soils, where there are limits on the allowable concentrations for many elements. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Brauer M.,University of British Columbia | Miller P.,Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management NESCAUM | Allen G.,Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management NESCAUM | Rector L.,Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management NESCAUM
EM: Air and Waste Management Association's Magazine for Environmental Managers | Year: 2010

With increasing interest and growth in wood combustion, exposure to elevated woodsmoke levels is an emerging public health concern. This is particularly salient in nonurban areas, especially in complex terrains where pollution dispersion in valleys can be low. Monitoring networks typically are not dense enough to capture woodsmoke spatial patterns and potential local hotspots. To address this, we have described a modeling approach that can be used as a screening level assessment to identify areas of potential concern. Copyright 2010 Air & Waste Management Association. Source

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