Northeast Ohio Medical University, also known as NEOMED, and formerly known as the Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy , is a community-based, public state university that offers M.D., B.S./M.D., Pharm.D., M.P.H., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees. Wikipedia.
News Article | May 18, 2017
ORLANDO, Fla.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--University of Rochester Medical Center’s UR Voice Team and Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital’s Client and Family Centred Care Simulation Development Team were named the winners of the fourth annual Sherman Award for Excellence in Patient Engagement at the National Patient Safety Foundation’s (NPSF) 19th Annual Patient Safety Congress today. The honor was conferred by Taylor Healthcare and the Lucian Leape Institute on behalf of EngagingPatients.org, the online community that sponsors the award. The Sherman Award recognizes innovative programs that are improving care and outcomes through patient and family engagement. Additionally, three programs were named 2017 finalists: Brigham Health-Brigham and Woman’s Hospital Patient Safety Team; Dayton Children’s Hospital Family Resource Connection; Northeast Ohio Medical University Health Professionals Affinity Community (HPAC). University of Rochester Medical Center: UR Voice is a patient-reported outcomes survey tool that uses an NIH-funded software program called PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System). Patients take a 3-5 minute iPad survey at every outpatient visit. The software captures their perspectives on important indicators including physical function, mood and pain level. The data is used for shared decision-making—evaluating whether a treatment or surgery is a good choice based on the patient’s level of impairment or pain. It allows patients to compare their data with US normative data and shows them graphically what the treatment would do for them using predictive analytics. To date, more than 350,000 surveys have been completed by 112,581 patients. Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital: Holland Bloorview is Canada’s largest children’s rehabilitation hospital focused on improving the lives of kids and youth with disabilities. A multi-disciplinary team including family-centred care leads, hospital leadership, clinicians and families developed simulation scenarios that provide an opportunity for meaningful, hands on learning about how to embed client and family-centred care into daily practice and improve patient and family experience. The training is delivered to all newly-hired clinicians and the hospital is also providing the training to current staff to ensure consistency and quality of care for patients and families. Seven scenarios were created and four (two videotaped and two live) are being used as teaching tools. Families were full partners in simulation development. Their engagement ensured the scenarios are authentic and have lasting impact. After initial development, families continue to support the evolution of the workshops and participate as simulation facilitators. “We continue to be impressed by the programs focused on patient and family engagement happening throughout the world,” said Mark O’Leary, president of Taylor Communications. “The Sherman Award gives us an insider’s look at how providers are connecting and building deeper relationships with patients and families. “We know that improving communication with patients and families continues to be the cornerstone of strong patient engagement and patient satisfaction. The winners and finalists all crafted programs committed to listening to valuable input from patients and families and incorporated that feedback into programs to improve patient care. These concrete changes and dedication to incorporating patient and family voices are truly will impact outcomes and patient satisfaction and ultimately transform healthcare.” Nominations were evaluated on their success in advancing patient engagement and driving results, sustainability, potential for replication, effectiveness in communicating and collaborating with stakeholders and inspirational value. “Greater patient and family engagement—at all levels—really is an essential factor in improving safety and outcomes,” said Tejal K. Gandhi, MD, MPH, CPPS, chief clinical and safety officer, IHI, and president of the Lucian Leape Institute. “As this year’s honorees demonstrate, improving patient and family engagement takes thought, effort, persistence, and innovation. But it can be done successfully with great effect.” During the coming months, EngagingPatients.org will feature the winners and finalists as guest bloggers. Full details of the winner and finalist initiatives are at www.engagingpatients.org. Launched in June 2013, EngagingPatients.org is an online community dedicated to improving the patient and family experience, the quality of care and improving outcomes by enhancing communication between patients, their advocates and their providers. The Sherman Award was created to recognize innovative programs and approaches increasing patient and family engagement and delivering better, safer care and outcomes. The Lucian Leape Institute, established by the National Patient Safety Foundation (NPSF) in 2007, is charged with defining strategic paths and calls to action for the field of patient safety, offering vision and context for the many efforts under way within health care, and providing the leverage necessary for system-level change. Since NPSF merged with the Institute for Healthcare Improvement on May 1 of this year, the Institute continues its work within IHI’s safety program area. To learn more about our trainings, resources, and practical applications, visit ihi.org/PatientSafety. Taylor Healthcare, a part of Taylor Communications, is a marketing and communications company serving the healthcare industry with a broad spectrum of tangible and digital solutions primarily in the acute, long-term care and payer markets. We help our customers standardize and manage communications across the continuum of care, enabling them to engage the right person with the right information at the right time to influence behavior and achieve desired outcomes.
News Article | May 23, 2017
Weighing in at 200,000 kilograms and stretching the length of a basketball court, the blue whale is the biggest animal that’s ever lived. Now, scientists have figured out why they and other baleen whales got so huge. “It’s a cool study,” says Jakob Vinther, an evolutionary paleobologist at the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom. "I’m going to send it to my students." Biologists have long debated why some whales became the world’s biggest animals. Some have proposed that because water bears the animal’s weight, whales can move around more easily and gulp in enough food to sustain big appetites. Others have suggested that whales got big to fend off giant sharks and other megapredators. Researchers have also argued about when these animals got so huge. In 2010, Graham Slater, an evolutionary biologist currently at the University of Chicago in Illinois, argued that cetaceans—a term that includes whales and dolphins—split into different-sized groups very early in their history, perhaps 30 million years ago. Dolphins remained the shrimps of the cetacean world, filter-feeding baleen whales became the giants, and predatory beaked whales stayed in the middle size-wise, with the descendants in those three groups sticking within those early established size ranges. However, Nicholas Pyenson, a whale expert at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., was skeptical. So a few years ago, the two decided to tap the museum’s vast cetacean fossil collection to settle the dispute. Pyenson had already surveyed living whale proportions and determined that the size of the whale correlated with the width of its cheek bones. So Pyenson measured or obtained these data from skulls of 63 extinct whale species and of 13 modern species and plotted them on a timeline that showed the whale family tree. The data showed that whales didn’t get really big early on, as Slater had suggested. Nor did they gradually get big over time. Instead they become moderately large and stayed that way until about 4.5 million years ago, Slater, Pyenson, and Jeremy Goldbogen at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, report today in the . Then baleen whales went “from relatively big to ginormous,” Slater says. Blue whales today are 30 meters long, where until 4.5 million years ago, the biggest whales were 10 meters long. “The idea … that the shift … occurred so recently—4.5 million years ago—is surprising,” says Felisa Smith, a paleoecologist at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, who was not involved in the work but studies body size evolution. Next, Slater and his colleagues checked to see what was happening in the world at the time to cause the change. They found that the baleen whales' growth spurt coincided with the beginning of the first ice ages. As glaciers expanded, spring and summer runoff poured nutrients into the coastal ocean, fueling explosive growth in krill and small animals the whales consumed, they speculate. Until that time, prey had been uniformly distributed and plentiful, but the climate change caused many fish and big sea animals to disappear, and productivity plummeted. That seasonal runoff created a new pattern of food availability: seasonal patches of very abundant food spaced far apart over the course of the year. Goldbogen helped Slater and Pyenson understand how that change was important. He studies whale eating and diving, and his work indicates that the more concentrated the food, the more efficient the feeding, especially in whales with really, really big mouths. Furthermore, larger whales can travel faster between patches of prey. So baleen whales that got bigger, faster, thrived, whereas smaller species went extinct. And their giant size may have even promoted greater productivity, “by bringing up nutrients from deep waters as they dive and resurface,” suggests Geerat Vermeij, a paleobiologist at the University of California, Davis, who was not involved in the work. This is not the first time researchers have decided that food has shaped whale evolution. But “the work helps us sort out the relative importance of different reasons why baleen whales got so big,” says Hans Thewissen, an anatomist who studies whales at Northeast Ohio Medical University in Rootstown and was not involved with the study. “They elegantly and explicitly analyzed the data.” “The study provides support for when and how the largest whales evolved,” Smith agrees. However, although the timing of the shift seems to rule out that gigantism arose as a defense against megasharks and other predators prowling oceans at the time, she says, “I think there is enough uncertainty to remain somewhat skeptical” that the defense argument is dead.
Chiang J.Y.L.,Northeast Ohio Medical University
Comprehensive Physiology | Year: 2013
Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and preventing accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and toxic metabolites, and injury in the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids from the liver to intestine and back to the liver plays a central role in nutrient absorption and distribution, and metabolic regulation and homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by a complex membrane transport system in the liver and intestine regulated by nuclear receptors. Toxic bile acids may cause inflammation, apoptosis, and cell death. On the other hand, bile acid-activated nuclear and GPCR signaling protects against inflammation in liver, intestine, and macrophages. Disorders in bile acid metabolism cause cholestatic liver diseases, dyslipidemia, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants are therapeutic agents for treating chronic liver diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans. © 2013 American Physiological Society.
Li T.,University of Kansas Medical Center |
Chiang J.Y.L.,Northeast Ohio Medical University
Pharmacological Reviews | Year: 2014
Bile acids are the end products of cholesterol catabolism. Hepatic bile acid synthesis accounts for a major fraction of daily cholesterol turnover in humans. Biliary secretion of bile acids generates bile flow and facilitates hepatobiliary secretion of lipids, lipophilic metabolites, and xenobiotics. In the intestine, bile acids are essential for the absorption, transport, and metabolism of dietary fats and lipid-soluble vitamins. Extensive research in the last 2 decades has unveiled new functions of bile acids as signaling molecules and metabolic integrators. The bile acid-activated nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, vitamin D receptor, and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor play critical roles in the regulation of lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism, inflammation, and drug metabolism and detoxification. Bile acid synthesis exhibits a strong diurnal rhythm, which is entrained by fasting and refeeding as well as nutrient status and plays an important role for maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Recent research revealed an interaction of liver bile acids and gut microbiota in the regulation of liver metabolism. Circadian disturbance and altered gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of liver diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, and obesity. Bile acids and their derivatives are potential therapeutic agents for treating metabolic diseases of the liver. © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Lu Y.,Northeast Ohio Medical University
Neuroscience | Year: 2014
As the major excitatory neurotransmitter used in the vertebrate brain, glutamate activates ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which mediate fast and slow neuronal actions, respectively. Important modulatory roles of mGluRs have been shown in many brain areas, and drugs targeting mGluRs have been developed for the treatment of brain disorders. Here, I review studies on mGluRs in the auditory system. Anatomical expression of mGluRs in the cochlear nucleus has been well characterized, while data for other auditory nuclei await more systematic investigations at both the light and electron microscopy levels. The physiology of mGluRs has been extensively studied using in vitro brain slice preparations, with a focus on the lower auditory brainstem in both mammals and birds. These in vitro physiological studies have revealed that mGluRs participate in neurotransmission, regulate ionic homeostasis, induce synaptic plasticity, and maintain the balance between excitation and inhibition in a variety of auditory structures. However, very few in vivo physiological studies on mGluRs in auditory processing have been undertaken at the systems level. Many questions regarding the essential roles of mGluRs in auditory processing still remain unanswered and more rigorous basic research is warranted. © 2014 IBRO.
Chen Y.-R.,Northeast Ohio Medical University |
Zweier J.L.,Northeast Ohio Medical University |
Zweier J.L.,Ohio State University
Circulation Research | Year: 2014
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as an important mechanism of disease and redox signaling in the cardiovascular system. Under basal or pathological conditions, electron leakage for ROS production is primarily mediated by the electron transport chain and the proton motive force consisting of a membrane potential (ΔΨ) and a proton gradient (ΔpH). Several factors controlling ROS production in the mitochondria include flavin mononucleotide and flavin mononucleotide-binding domain of complex I, ubisemiquinone and quinone-binding domain of complex I, flavin adenine nucleotide-binding moiety and quinone-binding pocket of complex II, and unstable semiquinone mediated by the Q cycle of complex III. In mitochondrial complex I, specific cysteinyl redox domains modulate ROS production from the flavin mononucleotide moiety and iron-sulfur clusters. In the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial ROS have been linked to mediating the physiological effects of metabolic dilation and preconditioning-like mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel activation. Furthermore, oxidative post-translational modification by glutathione in complex I and complex II has been shown to affect enzymatic catalysis, protein-protein interactions, and enzyme-mediated ROS production. Conditions associated with oxidative or nitrosative stress, such as myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, increase mitochondrial ROS production via oxidative injury of complexes I and II and superoxide anion radical-induced hydroxyl radical production by aconitase. Further insight into cellular mechanisms by which specific redox post-translational modifications regulate ROS production in the mitochondria will enrich our understanding of redox signal transduction and identify new therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases in which oxidative stress perturbs normal redox signaling. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.
Barr R.G.,Northeast Ohio Medical University
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine | Year: 2012
Breast elastography is a new sonographic technique that provides additional characterization information on breast lesions over conventional sonography and mammography. This technique provides information on the strain or hardness of a lesion, similar to a clinical palpation examination. Two techniques are now available for clinical use: strain (compression-based elastography) and shear wave elastography. Initial evaluation of these techniques in clinical trials suggests that they may substantially improve the characterization of breast lesions as benign or malignant. This improvement may substantially reduce the number of benign biopsies performed. Elastography can be performed by several methods and is now available from several manufactures. This article reviews the basics of this technique, how to perform the examination, image interpretation, and artifacts. Although easy to perform, technique is critical to obtain adequate images for interpretation. This primer will highlight the technique and point out common pitfalls. ©2012 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Northeast Ohio Medical University | Date: 2013-03-14
The present invention relates to a methods for extending the period of filtering bleb survival and/or providing for long term bleb survival following Glaucoma Filtration Surgery by delivering an ALK-5 inhibitor to a wound area (the surgical site) of a patients eye. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method for the controlled delivery of an ALK-5 inhibitor to patients eye using a thermo-sensitive polymer formulation, wherein the ALK-5 inhibitor is first contained in the polymer formulation at a temperature sufficient to maintain the formulation as a liquid and then applied to the eye wound opening, wherein the formulation turns to a gel. The use of the thermo-sensitive gel with ALK-5 inhibitor contained therein, provides for longer term bleb survival following Glaucoma Filtration Surgery (GFS) on a patients eye. Thus, the present invention is particularly effective in inhibiting ocular fibrotic wound response following GFS.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 344.38K | Year: 2015
Bats are the only mammals capable of powered flight. Bats are also unusual among mammals because their wing bones bend during flight. Some bones bend to almost 90 degrees and do not fracture. However, little is known about how the materials that make up bat bones allow this unusual bending, or the genes that control the deposition and maintenance of this bone tissue. By studying the structure and genetic underpinnings of bat bones compared to terrestrial mammals, this work will show how bone cells work together to create this unusual bone. By building a bat-like bone matrix in a petri dish, it may be possible to get a bioprint of a synthetic material that can bend like bat bones without breaking. Workshops for pre-Kindergarten to high school students about how the bat got its wings have so far reached over 200 students in Northeastern Ohio and this outreach will be continued. Additionally, students around the world will benefit from a newly created educational website. Beyond these workshops, high school, undergraduate, and graduate students working as part of this project will receive interdisciplinary training in molecular, biomechanical, and nanostructural biological techniques.
By identifying the mechanisms required to create a resilient extracellular bone matrix in vivo and in vitro, this study is expected to expand our understanding of how bone performance is adjusted by constituent molecular processes and microstructure. We integrate RNA expression and mechanical performance in a flexible bone by undertaking structural and biomechanical analyses (nano-scale to whole bone), as well as in vivo and in vitro molecular assays of limb bone cells of volant and non-volant mammals. Specifically, this result could show how mammalian bone cells can synthesize a bat-like matrix in a 2D culture environment, and eventually allow the synthesis of a specialized 3D matrix in vivo. Overall this study will allow for multiple fields of research to understand and capitalize on what evolution selected as the key mechanisms needed to make an unusually flexible bone.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Biological Anthropology | Award Amount: 258.99K | Year: 2016
The majority of primate species are partially or completely tree-dwelling (arboreal), and they often captivate observers with their ability to walk and run with ease over narrow, steep, and bending branches. The goal of this project is to investigate the mechanics of quadrupedal locomotion (movement on four limbs) in wild primates moving in their natural environments, to provide a deeper understanding of primate arboreal athleticism. Past studies of primate quadrupedal mechanics have largely come from laboratory-based research, but in this study researchers will use advanced and durable video technologies that permit high-resolution measures of locomotion in the wild. The results of this project will further our understanding of locomotor adaptations that are thought to be central to the evolution of our early primate ancestors. The project will support undergraduate and graduate student training, and will enhance K-12 STEM education and public outreach through high school programs and collaborations with established science outreach programs at UT Austin. Findings from this project will be relevant to primate conservation efforts, science education, and community outreach at the field location.
This project will test hypotheses about the proximate and ultimate determinants of primate locomotor adaptation through analysis of ten free-ranging New World monkey species at the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in Ecuador. The investigators will document the locomotor kinematics of quadrupedal primates moving in their natural habitats using multi-camera, high-speed, high-resolution videography, sampling arboreal locomotion on a range of substrates and quantifying standard kinematic spatiotemporal variables. The morphology of the arboreal locomotor substrates will be quantified using novel methods, with specific measurements including substrate diameter, three-dimensional substrate orientation, substrate height above the ground, and substrate compliance. By analyzing the determinants of kinematic variation in an explicit phylogenetic framework, researchers will explore historical, allometric, and functional influences on primate quadrupedalism. This research will add to existing laboratory and field data, breaking new ground by lending ecological validity to standard metrics of gait performance and increasing the precision of standard field measurements of kinematics and substrate variation. The comparative phylogenetic framework will allow field testing of functional associations between kinematic features and aspects of substrate variation that have been previously demonstrated only in laboratory studies. Such knowledge is critical to understanding the adaptive context in which the distinctive aspects of primate quadrupedalism evolved.