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Fort Wayne, IN, United States

Wat M.J.,Baylor College of Medicine | Enciso V.B.,Baylor College of Medicine | Wiszniewski W.,Baylor College of Medicine | Resnick T.,University of Miami | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2010

Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) can occur in isolation or in association with other abnormalities. We hypothesised that some cases of non-isolated CDH are caused by novel genomic disorders. Methods and results: In a cohort of >12 000 patients referred for array comparative genomic hybridisation testing, we identified three individuals - two of whom had CDH - with deletions involving a ∼2.3 Mb region on chromosome 15q25.2. Two additional patients with deletions of this region have been reported, including a fetus with CDH. Clinical data from these patients suggest that recurrent deletions of 15q25.2 are associated with an increased risk of developing CDH, cognitive deficits, cryptorchidism, short stature and possibly Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA). Although no known CDH-associated genes are located on 15q25.2, four genes in this region - CPEB1, AP3B2, HOMER2 and HDGFRP3 - have been implicated in CNS development/function and may contribute to the cognitive deficits seen in deletion patients. Deletions of RPS17 may also predispose individuals with 15q25.2 deletions to DBA and associated anomalies. Conclusions: Individuals with recurrent deletions of 15q25.2 are at increased risk for CDH and other birth defects. A high index of suspicion should exist for the development of cognitive defects, anaemia and DBA-associated malignancies in these individuals. Source


Beunders G.,VU University Amsterdam | Voorhoeve E.,VU University Amsterdam | Golzio C.,Duke University | Pardo L.M.,VU University Amsterdam | And 74 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013

Genomic rearrangements involving AUTS2 (7q11.22) are associated with autism and intellectual disability (ID), although evidence for causality is limited. By combining the results of diagnostic testing of 49,684 individuals, we identified 24 microdeletions that affect at least one exon of AUTS2, as well as one translocation and one inversion each with a breakpoint within the AUTS2 locus. Comparison of 17 well-characterized individuals enabled identification of a variable syndromic phenotype including ID, autism, short stature, microcephaly, cerebral palsy, and facial dysmorphisms. The dysmorphic features were more pronounced in persons with 3′ AUTS2 deletions. This part of the gene is shown to encode a C-terminal isoform (with an alternative transcription start site) expressed in the human brain. Consistent with our genetic data, suppression of auts2 in zebrafish embryos caused microcephaly that could be rescued by either the full-length or the C-terminal isoform of AUTS2. Our observations demonstrate a causal role of AUTS2 in neurocognitive disorders, establish a hitherto unappreciated syndromic phenotype at this locus, and show how transcriptional complexity can underpin human pathology. The zebrafish model provides a valuable tool for investigating the etiology of AUTS2 syndrome and facilitating gene-function analysis in the future. © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Source


Breman A.M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Ramocki M.B.,Baylor College of Medicine | Kang S.-H.L.,Baylor College of Medicine | Williams M.,Vanderbilt University | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2011

Duplications of the Xq28 chromosome region resulting in functional disomy are associated with a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by infantile hypotonia, severe developmental delay, progressive neurological impairment, absent speech, and proneness to infections. Increased expression of the dosage-sensitive MECP2 gene is considered responsible for the severe neurological impairments observed in affected individuals. Although cytogenetically visible duplications of Xq28 are well documented in the published literature, recent advances using array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) led to the detection of an increasing number of microduplications spanning MECP2. In rare cases, duplication results from intrachromosomal rearrangement between the X and Y chromosomes. We report six cases with sex chromosome rearrangements involving duplication of MECP2. Cases 1-4 are unbalanced rearrangements between X and Y, resulting in MECP2 duplication. The additional Xq material was translocated to Yp in three cases (cases 1-3), and to the heterochromatic region of Yq12 in one case (case 4). Cases 5 and 6 were identified by array CGH to have a loss in copy number at Xp and a gain in copy number at Xq28 involving the MECP2 gene. In both cases, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed a recombinant X chromosome containing the duplicated material from Xq28 on Xp, resulting from a maternal pericentric inversion. These cases add to a growing number of MECP2 duplications that have been detected by array CGH, while demonstrating the value of confirmatory chromosome and FISH studies for the localization of the duplicated material and the identification of complex rearrangements. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source


Dabell M.P.,Perkin Elmer Corporation | Rosenfeld J.A.,Perkin Elmer Corporation | Bader P.,Northeast Indiana Genetic Counseling Center | Escobar L.F.,Medical Genetics and Neurodevelopmental Center | And 29 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

Deletions at 2p16.3 involving exons of NRXN1 are associated with susceptibility for autism and schizophrenia, and similar deletions have been identified in individuals with developmental delay and dysmorphic features. We have identified 34 probands with exonic NRXN1 deletions following referral for clinical microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. To more firmly establish the full phenotypic spectrum associated with exonic NRXN1 deletions, we report the clinical features of 27 individuals with NRXN1 deletions, who represent 23 of these 34 families. The frequency of exonic NRXN1 deletions among our postnatally diagnosed patients (0.11%) is significantly higher than the frequency among reported controls (0.02%; P=6.08×10-7), supporting a role for these deletions in the development of abnormal phenotypes. Generally, most individuals with NRXN1 exonic deletions have developmental delay (particularly speech), abnormal behaviors, and mild dysmorphic features. In our cohort, autism spectrum disorders were diagnosed in 43% (10/23), and 16% (4/25) had epilepsy. The presence of NRXN1 deletions in normal parents and siblings suggests reduced penetrance and/or variable expressivity, which may be influenced by genetic, environmental, and/or stochastic factors. The pathogenicity of these deletions may also be affected by the location of the deletion within the gene. Counseling should appropriately represent this spectrum of possibilities when discussing recurrence risks or expectations for a child found to have a deletion in NRXN1. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Cooper G.M.,University of Washington | Cooper G.M.,HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology | Coe B.P.,University of Washington | Girirajan S.,University of Washington | And 24 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2011

To understand the genetic heterogeneity underlying developmental delay, we compared copy number variants (CNVs) in 15,767 children with intellectual disability and various congenital defects (cases) to CNVs in 8,329 unaffected adult controls. We estimate that 1/414.2% of disease in these children is caused by CNVs >400 kb. We observed a greater enrichment of CNVs in individuals with craniofacial anomalies and cardiovascular defects compared to those with epilepsy or autism. We identified 59 pathogenic CNVs, including 14 new or previously weakly supported candidates, refined the critical interval for several genomic disorders, such as the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, and identified 940 candidate dosage-sensitive genes. We also developed methods to opportunistically discover small, disruptive CNVs within the large and growing diagnostic array datasets. This evolving CNV morbidity map, combined with exome and genome sequencing, will be critical for deciphering the genetic basis of developmental delay, intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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