Sethe S.,NorthEast England Stem Cell Institute |
Murdoch A.,Newcastle Fertility Center at Life
Health Care Analysis | Year: 2013
In the UK, regulation of clinical services is being restructured. We consider two clinical procedures, abortion and IVF treatment, which have similar ethical and political sensitivities. We consider factors including the law, licensing, inspection, amount of paperwork and reporting requirements, the reception by practitioners and costs, to establish which field has the greater 'regulatory burden'. We test them based on scientific, ethical, social, political factors that might explain differences. We find that regulatory burden borne by IVF services is greater than in abortion, but none of the explanatory theses can provide a justification of this phenomenon. We offer an alternative explanation based on regulatory 'overspill' from research regulation and policy making, conceptualisation of risk regulation and a high public profile that locks a regulator into self-preservation. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Lister L.M.,Northumbria University |
Lister L.M.,NorthEast England Stem Cell Institute |
Kouznetsova A.,Karolinska Institutet |
Hyslop L.A.,Newcastle Fertility Center |
And 18 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2010
Background: The growing trend for women to postpone childbearing has resulted in a dramatic increase in the incidence of trisomic pregnancies. Maternal age-related miscarriage and birth defects are predominantly a consequence of chromosome segregation errors during the first meiotic division (MI), which involves the segregation of replicated recombined homologous chromosomes. Despite the importance to human reproductive health, the events precipitating female age-related meiotic errors are poorly understood. Results: Here we use a long-lived wild-type mouse strain to show that the ability to segregate chromosomes synchronously during anaphase of MI declines dramatically during female aging. This is preceded by depletion of chromosome-associated cohesin in association with destabilization of chiasmata, the physical linkages between homologous chromosomes, and loss of the tight association between sister centromeres. Loss of cohesin is not due to an age-related decline in the ability of the spindle checkpoint to delay separase-mediated cleavage of cohesin until entry into anaphase I. However, we find that reduced cohesin is accompanied by depletion of Sgo2, which protects centromeric cohesin during MI. Conclusions: The data indicate that cohesin declines gradually during the long prophase arrest that precedes MI in female mammals. In aged oocytes, cohesin levels fall below the level required to stabilize chiasmata and to hold sister centromeres tightly together, leading to chromosome missegregation during MI. Cohesin loss may be amplified by a concomitant decline in the levels of the centromeric cohesin protector Sgo2. These findings indicate that cohesin is a key molecular link between female aging and chromosome missegregation during MI. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prathalingam N.,NorthEast England Stem Cell Institute |
Prathalingam N.,Northumbria University |
Ferguson L.,NorthEast England Stem Cell Institute |
Ferguson L.,Institute for Cellular Medicine |
And 17 more authors.
Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2012
Introduction. The development of reproducible methods for deriving human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP) is essential for the development of hESC-based therapies. Although significant progress has been made toward the development of chemically defined conditions for the maintenance and differentiation of hESCs, efficient derivation of new hESCs requires the use of fibroblast feeder cells. However, GMP-grade feeder cell lines validated for hESC derivation are not readily available. Methods. We derived a fibroblast cell line (NclFed1A) from human foreskin in compliance with GMP standards. Consent was obtained to use the cells for the production of hESCs and to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We compared the line with a variety of other cell lines for its ability to support derivation and self-renewal of hESCs. Results: NclFed1A supports efficient rates (33%) of hESC colony formation after explantation of the inner cell mass (ICM) of human blastocysts. This compared favorably with two mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines. NclFed1A also compared favorably with commercially available foreskin fibroblasts and MEFs in promoting proliferation and pluripotency of a number of existing and widely used hESCs. The ability of NclFed1A to maintain self-renewal remained undiminished for up to 28 population doublings from the master cell bank. Conclusions: The human fibroblast line Ncl1Fed1A, produced in compliance with GMP standards and qualified for derivation and maintenance of hESCs, is a useful resource for the advancement of progress toward hESC-based therapies in regenerative medicine. © 2012 Prathalingam et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.