Liu K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Han J.,Northeast Agricultural University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011
For determining variation in mineral composition and phosphorus (P) profile among streams of dry-grind ethanol production, samples of ground corn, intermediate streams, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were obtained from three commercial plants. Most attributes (dry matter concentrations) increased significantly from corn to cooked slurry but fermentation caused most significant increase in all attributes. During centrifugation, more minerals went into thin stillage than wet grains, making minerals most concentrated in the former. Mineral increase in DDGS over corn was about 3 fold, except for Na, S, Ca, and Fe. The first three had much higher fold of increase, presumably due to exogenous addition. During fermentation, phytate P and inorganic P had 2.54 and 10.37 fold of increase over corn, respectively, while relative to total P, % phytate P decreased and % inorganic P increased significantly. These observations suggest that phytate underwent some degradation, presumably due to activity of yeast phytase. © 2010.
Jiang Z.,Northeast Agricultural University |
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012
Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were prepared from aqueous model mixtures containing 3% (w/w) ribose and 3% (w/w) of the dairy proteins α-lactalbumin (α-LA) or β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), heated at 95°C, for up to 5 h. The pH of MRPs decreased significantly during heat treatment of α-LA-Ribose and β-LG-Ribose mixtures from 8.4 to 5.3. The amino group content in MRPs, derived from the α-LA-Ribose and β-LG-Ribose model system, was decreased noticeably during the first hour and did not change thereafter. The loss of free ribose in MRPs was higher for β-LG-Ribose than for α-LA-Ribose. During the Maillard reaction, the concentration of native and non-native α-LA, or β-LG, decreased and the formation of aggregates was observed. Fluorescence intensity of the β-LG-Ribose MRPs reached maximum within 1 h, compared to 2 h for α-LA-Ribose MRPs. Meanwhile, modification of the UV/vis absorption spectra for α-LA and β-LG was mainly due to a condensation reaction with ribose. Dynamic light scattering showed a significant increase in the particle size of the MRPs. Size exclusion chromatography of MRPs revealed the production of both high and low molecular weight material. Electrophoresis of MRPs indicated polymerization of α-LA and β-LG monomers via inter-molecular disulfide bridge, but also via other covelant bonds. MRPs from α-LA-Ribose and β-LG-Ribose exhibited increased antioxidant activities, therefore theses MRPs may be used as natural antioxidants in food products. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Han J.,Northeast Agricultural University |
Liu K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010
Three sets of samples, consisting of ground corn, yeast, intermediate products, and DDGS, were provided by three commercial dry grind ethanol plants in Iowa and freeze dried before chemical analysis. On average, ground corn contained 70.23% starch, 7.65% protein, 3.26% oil, 1.29% ash, 87.79% total carbohydrate (CHO), and 17.57% total nonstarch CHO, dry matter basis. Results from Plant 1 samples showed that compared to ground corn, there was a slight but significant increase in the contents of protein, amino acids (AA), oil, and ash before fermentation, although starch/dextrin decreased sharply upon saccharification. After fermentation, starch content further decreased to about 6.0%, while protein, oil, and ash contents increased over 3-fold. AA increased 2.0-3.5-fold. Total CHO content decreased by 40%, and the content of total nonstarch CHO increased over 2.5-fold. Concentrations of these attributes fluctuated slightly in the remaining downstream products, but oil and ash were concentrated In thin stillage, while protein was concentrated In distiller grains upon centrifugation. When AA composition Is expressed in relative % (protein basis), its changes did not follow that of protein concentration, but the influence of yeast AA profiles on those of downstream products became apparent. Accordingly, a multiple linear regression model for the AA profile of a downstream product as a function of AA profiles of ground corn and yeast was proposed. Regression results indicated that, with an r2 0.95, yeast contributed about 20% toward DDGS proteins, and the rest came from corn. Data from Plants 2 and 3 confirmed those found with Plant 1 samples. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Zhou X.,Northeast Agricultural University |
Wu F.,Northeast Agricultural University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Background: Autotoxicity of cucumber root exudates or decaying residues may be the cause of the soil sickness of cucumber. However, how autotoxins affect soil microbial communities is not yet fully understood. Methodology/Principal Findings: The aims of this study were to study the effects of an artificially applied autotoxin of cucumber, p-coumaric acid, on cucumber seedling growth, rhizosphere soil microbial communities, and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum Owen (a soil-borne pathogen of cucumber) growth. Abundance, structure and composition of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed with real-time PCR, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library methods. Soil dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass C (MBC) were determined to indicate the activity and size of the soil microflora. Results showed that p-coumaric acid (0.1-1.0 μmol/g soil) decreased cucumber leaf area, and increased soil dehydrogenase activity, MBC and rhizosphere bacterial and fungal community abundances. p-Coumaric acid also changed the structure and composition of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities, with increases in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa Firmicutes, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and fungal taxa Sordariomycete, Zygomycota, and decreases in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa Bacteroidetes, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and fungal taxon Pezizomycete. In addition, p-coumaric acid increased Fusarium oxysporum population densities in soil. Conclusions/Significance: These results indicate that p-coumaric acid may play a role in the autotoxicity of cucumber via influencing soil microbial communities. © 2012 Zhou, Wu.
Jiang G.-Z.,Northeast Agricultural University |
Li J.-C.,Northeast Agricultural University
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2014
The present study aimed to examine the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 against colistin-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 was shown to elevate cell viability, decrease levels of malondialdehyde and intracellular reactive oxygen species, enhance activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and decrease the release of cytochrome-c, formation of DNA fragmentation in colistin-treated PC12 cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 also reversed the increased caspase-9 and -3 mRNA levels caused by colistin in PC12 cells. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 exerts a neuroprotective effect on colistin-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, at least in part, via the inhibition of oxidative stress, prevention of apoptosis mediated via mitochondria pathway. Co-administration of ginsenoside Rg1 highlights the potential to increase the therapeutic index of colistin. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.
Kong Q.R.,Northeast Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2011
Uncompleted epigenetic reprogramming is attributed to the low efficiency of producing transgenic cloned animals. Histone modification associated with epigenetics can directly influence the embryo development and transgene expression. Trichostatin A (TSA), as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can change the status of histone acetylation, improve somatic cell reprogramming, and enhance cloning efficiency. TSA prevents the chromatin structure from being condensed, so that transcription factor could binds to DNA sequence easily and enhance transgene expression. Our study established the optimal TSA treatment on porcine donor cells and cloned embryos, 250 nmol/L, 24 h and 40 nmol/L, 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, we found that both the cloned embryo and the donor cell treated by TSA resulted in the highest development efficiency. Meanwhile, TSA can improve transgene expression in donor cell and cloned embryo. In summary, TSA can significantly improve porcine reconstructed embryo development and transgene expression.
Yin Z.,Northeast Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012
Sequences proximal to transgene integration sites are able to regulate transgene expression, resulting in complex position effect variegation. Position effect variegation can cause differences in epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation. However, it is not known which factor, position effect or epigenetic modification, plays a more important role in the regulation of transgene expression. We analyzed transgene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications of transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein, driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. DNA hypermethylation and loss of acetylation of specific histone H3 and H4 lysines, except H4K16 acetylation in the CMV promoter, were consistent with a low level of transgene expression. Moreover, the degree of DNA methylation and histone H3/H4 acetylation in the promoter region depended on the integration site; consequently, position effect variegation caused variations in epigenetic modifications. The transgenic pig fibroblast cell lines were treated with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Transgene expression was promoted by reversing the DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation status. The differences in DNA methylation and histone acetylation in the CMV promoter region in these cell lines were not significant; however, significant differences in transgene expression were detected, demonstrating that variegation of transgene expression is affected by the integration site. We conclude that in this pig model, position effect variegation affects transgene expression.
Cong Y.,Northeast Agricultural University |
Ren X.,Northeast Agricultural University
Reviews in Medical Virology | Year: 2014
Most coronaviruses cause respiratory or intestinal infections in their animal or human host. Hence, their interaction with polarized epithelial cells plays a critical role in the onset and outcome of infection. In this paper, we review the knowledge regarding the entry and release of coronaviruses, with particular emphasis on the severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses. As these viruses approach the epithelial surfaces from the apical side, it is not surprising that coronavirus cell receptors are exposed primarily on the apical domain of polarized epithelial cells. With respect to release, all possibilities appear to occur. Thus, most coronaviruses exit through the apical surface, several through the basolateral one, although the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus appears to use both sides. These observations help us understand the local or systematic spread of the infection within its host as well as the spread of the virus within the host population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Northeast Agricultural University | Date: 2015-04-23
The present invention provides a method for aqueous enzymatic extraction of soybean oil, which is in the field of extraction processing technology for plant oil. The method comprises treating crushed and peeled soybeans with an extrusion puffing process and a hydrolysis process with an alkaline proteinase, followed by a liquid nitrogen freezing and a high voltage electrostatic thawing process, and finally obtaining soybean oil by centrifugation. The benefits of the present invention includes short extraction time and high extraction yield. It saves up to 93.1% of time in the freezing and thawing process alone. The total oil yield is up to 95.4%. Furthermore, the method of the invention produces high quality oil with a low peroxide value, a low p-anisidine value and a low TOTOX value.
Northeast Agricultural University and Zhejiang Sci-Tech University | Date: 2016-01-27
Inclined interpolation wide and narrow row spacing rice seedling transplanting mechanism belongs to agricultural machinery. A left power output shaft and a right power output shaft are correspondingly assembled on the left side part and right side part of the power transmission case, wherein the axes of the left power shaft and the right power output shaft are symmetrically arranged and incline downwards relative to the horizontal plane, and wherein the left transplanting mechanism and the right transplanting mechanism are perpendicularly attached to the left power output shaft and the right power output shaft respectively to form a V-shaped symmetrical structure with constant seedling taking space and narrow rice seedling transplanting space in the whole. A driven bevel gear is attached to the right power output shaft or the left power output shaft. A driving bevel gear on a main driving shaft in the power transmission case meshes with the driven bevel gear. A left bevel gear and a right bevel gear are respectively attached to the left power output shaft and the right power output shaft and the left bevel gear meshes with the right bevel gear mesh, wherein the transmission ratio is 1:1. It is realized in the invention that the left and right transplanting mechanisms both offset inward to plant the seedlings after they fetched the seedlings. It has simple structure and small space occupation, which makes the inward inclined narrow row transplanting possible. It needs low cost and easy installation. The row spacing is increased by 10 cm compared with the transplanted line. Therefore the connect seedling line has less possibility of hilling mud and dammed water and the seedlings avoid being pushed down. The invention is particularly suitable for general riding-type transplanters with high speed operation and integrated floating boards.