Royal Wootton Bassett, United Kingdom
Royal Wootton Bassett, United Kingdom

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Tonkin M.,University of Leicester | Woodhams J.,University of Birmingham | Bond J.W.,Northamptonshire Police | Loe T.,Northamptonshire Police
Behavioral Sciences and the Law | Year: 2010

Geographical profiling is an investigative methodology sometimes employed by the police to predict the residence of an unknown offender from the locations of his/her crimes. The validity of geographical profiling, however, has not been fully explored for certain crime types. This study, therefore, presents a preliminary test of the potential for geographical profiling with a sample of 145 serial vehicle thieves from the U.K. The behavioural assumptions underlying geographical profiling (distance decay and domo- centricity) are tested and a simple practical test of profiling using the spatial mean is presented. There is evidence for distance decay but not domocentricity among the spatial behaviour of car thieves from the U.K. A degree of success was achieved when applying the spatial mean on a case-by-case basis. The level ofsuccess varied, however, and neither series length in days nor number of crimes could account for the variation. The findings question previously held assumptions regarding geographical profiling and have potential theoretical and practical implications for the study and investigation of vehicle theft in the U.K. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Reid L.,University of Reading | Chana K.,United Road Services | Bond J.W.,Northamptonshire Police | Bond J.W.,University of Leicester | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2010

The collection efficiency of two widely used gunshot residue (GSR) collection techniques - carbon-coated adhesive stubs and alcohol swabs - has been compared by counting the number of characteristic GSR particles collected from the firing hand of a shooter after firing one round. Samples were analyzed with both scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-rays by an experienced GSR analyst, and the number of particles on each sample containing Pb, Ba, and Sb counted. The adhesive stubs showed a greater collection efficiency as all 24 samples gave positive results for GSR particles whereas the swabs gave only positive results for half of the 24 samples. Results showed a statistically significant collection efficiency for the stub collection method and likely reasons for this are considered. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Beresford A.L.,University of Leicester | Brown R.M.,University of Leicester | Hillman A.R.,University of Leicester | Bond J.W.,Northamptonshire Police | Bond J.W.,University of Leicester
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2012

To address the challenge of capturing latent fingerprint evidence from metal surfaces, a new method of latent fingerprint enhancement based on electrochromic polymer films has recently been developed. Here, we present a study comparing the development and visualization of nonvisible fingerprints on stainless steel substrates using this electrochromic enhancement approach with three classical methods (dusting, wet powder, and cyanoacrylate fuming). Two variants of the electrochromic enhancement method were utilized with polyaniline and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as the electrochromic materials. Fingerprint samples were taken from different donors (varying in age and gender) and were exposed to different environments for systematically varied periods of time (up to 28 days). The environments represent plausible evidential scenarios: left under ambient conditions, washed with aqueous soap solution, washed with acetone, submerged in water, and maintained at elevated temperature. The electrochromic enhancement procedure frequently outperformed the traditional methods, particularly for samples exposed to more challenging histories. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Bond J.W.,Northamptonshire Police | Bond J.W.,University of Leicester
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2010

A newly developed method is presented for measuring dezincification on the surface of brass from a consideration of the forward and reverse bias potential drop across a Schottky barrier diode formed between n-type zinc oxide or p-type copper (I) oxide corrosion products and the brass substrate. Electrical connection to the corrosion product is made with zinc and platinum tipped probes, approximately 1 mm diameter. Comparison with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the difference between the forward and reverse bias potential drop to be dependent on the relative abundance of the corrosion products and the work function of the metal probe. This difference, for a zinc tipped probe, gives a statistically significant correlation to the surface zinc to copper ratio and the degree of dezincification. Details of the setup, operation, and testing of a portable instrument designed to measure dezincification of brass by this method are given. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Goddard A.J.,University of Leicester | Hillman A.R.,University of Leicester | Bond J.W.,Northamptonshire Police | Bond J.W.,University of Leicester
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2010

The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is capable of imaging fingerprint ridges on polished brass substrates at an unprecedented level of detail. While exposure to elevated humidity at ambient or slightly raised temperatures does not change the image appreciably, subsequent brief heating in a flame results in complete loss of the sweat deposit and the appearance of pits and trenches. Localized elemental analysis (using EDAX, coupled with SEM imaging) shows the presence of the constituents of salt in the initial deposits. Together with water and atmospheric oxygen - and with thermal enhancement - these are capable of driving a surface corrosion process. This process is sufficiently localized that it has the potential to generate a durable negative topographical image of the fingerprint. AFM examination of surface regions between ridges revealed small deposits (probably microscopic "spatter" of sweat components or transferred particulates) that may ultimately limit the level of ridge detail analysis. © 2009 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Bond J.W.,Northamptonshire Police | Bond J.W.,University of Leicester
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

Corrosive electrochemical processes of brass, including those resulting from fingerprint sweat, continue to be studied because of the widespread industrial use of brass. Here, we examine how increased temperature affects the relative abundance of fingerprint sweat corrosion products and the rectifying Schottky barrier formed between p-type copper (I) oxide corrosion and brass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms increasing dezincification with increasing temperature. This leads to n-type zinc oxide replacing copper (I) oxide as the dominant corrosion product, which then forms a rectifying Schottky barrier with the brass, instead of copper oxide, when the temperature reaches c. 600°C. Using X-ray diffraction, resulting diodes show polycrystalline oxides embedded in amorphous oxidation products that have a lower relative abundance than the diode forming oxide. Conventional current/voltage (I/V) characteristics of these diodes show good rectifying qualities. At temperatures between c. 100 and c. 600°C, when neither oxide dominates, the semiconductor/brass contact displays an absence of rectification. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Bond J.W.,Northamptonshire Police | Bond J.W.,University of Leicester
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

The reflection of visible light from α-phase brass subject to surface oxidation in air at elevated temperatures is investigated. X-ray photoelectron and auger electron spectroscopy confirm that covered areas of brass (not exposed to air) display dezincification but an absence of significant surface oxidation, confirming a differential oxidation mechanism. Visualization of differential oxidation is shown to be enhanced by selective digital mapping of colors reflected from the surface of the brass using Adobe ® Photoshop ®. Enhancement is optimal when the brass is heated to ∼250°C with areas of oxidation having a mirror-like appearance. The use of this enhancement method to produce a faithful image of fingerprint ridge characteristics is demonstrated on brass shell casings where fingerprints were deposited prefiring. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Shuttlewood A.C.,University of Leicester | Bond J.W.,Northamptonshire Police | Bond J.W.,University of Leicester | Smith L.L.,University of Leicester
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

Previous research has shown that as crime scene location deprivation increases (lower socioeconomic status), the recovery of forensic material, principally DNA and fingerprints, also increases. However, this increase does not result in more crimes being solved by forensic means. In this study, we analyze stolen vehicle data and find a statistically significant positive association between deprivation and the amount of forensic material that matched either the victim or an associate of the victim on a criminal database. The nature of this association was investigated further by inspecting recovered stolen vehicles to establish whether the condition of a stolen vehicle and the tidiness of its interior influenced the recovery of forensic material that was attributed to the victim or an associate. Contradictory results suggest that other factors may contribute to understanding the association between the recovery of victim- or associate-attributable forensic material and crime scene location deprivation. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Bond J.W.,Northamptonshire Police | Bond J.W.,University of Leicester
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

From an examination of the fingerprint sweat corrosion of 40 different individuals on α phase brass, we show that an increase in visualization can be achieved by applying a negative potential to the brass followed by the introduction of a conducting powder. Previously, this technique has been demonstrated only for a positive applied potential and a corrosion product that was dominated by p-type copper (I) oxide. X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopic analyses of the surface of the corroded brass show that an increase in visualization with a negative applied potential corresponds with an increase in the concentration of n-type zinc oxide relative to p-type copper (I) oxide with the Cu:Zn ratio <0.8:1. Work function conditions for the formation of an n-type zinc oxide/brass rectifying Schottky barrier are fulfilled. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Chapman R.,University of Leicester | Smith L.L.,University of Leicester | Bond J.W.,Northamptonshire Police | Bond J.W.,University of Leicester
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2012

Car key burglary has recently become the focus of empirical investigation as offenders, no longer able to steal vehicles without first obtaining their keys, resort to "burgling" target properties. Research surrounding the modus operandi of these offenses is beginning to emerge; however, little attention has been paid to investigating the characteristics of car key burglary offenders. Challenging the assumption that car key burglary offenses are perpetrated by regular burglars, this study aims to differentiate between offenders. Logistic regression analysis of 110 car key and 110 regular burglary offenders revealed that car key burglars are more likely to have previous vehicle theft convictions and are also more likely to be detected on information supplied to the police than regular burglars. Regular burglars are more likely to have previous shoplifting convictions. It was concluded that car key burglars are a distinct sample of offenders and the implications of these findings are discussed. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

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