North Wind Inc.

Idaho Falls, ID, United States

North Wind Inc.

Idaho Falls, ID, United States
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Truex M.J.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | MacBeth T.W.,CDM | Vermeul V.R.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Fritz B.G.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | And 11 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The effectiveness of in situ treatment using zero-valent iron (ZVI) for nonaqueous phase or significant sediment-associated contaminant mass can be limited by relatively low rates of mass transfer to bring contaminants in contact with the reactive media. For a field test in a trichloroethene (TCE) source area, combining moderate-temperature subsurface electrical resistance heating with in situ ZVI treatment was shown to accelerate TCE treatment by a factor of about 4 based on organic daughter products and a factor about 8 based on chloride concentrations. A mass-discharge-based analysis was used to evaluate reaction, dissolution, and volatilization processes at ambient groundwater temperature (̃10 C) and as temperature was increased up to about 50 C. Increased reaction and contaminant dissolution were observed with increased temperature, but vapor- or aqueous-phase migration of TCE out of the treatment zone was minimal during the test because reactions maintained low aqueous-phase TCE concentrations. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Weidhaas J.L.,North Wind Inc. | Macbeth T.W.,CDM | Olsen R.L.,CDM | Sadowsky M.J.,University of Minnesota | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

Aim: To identify a DNA sequence specific to a bacterium found in poultry litter that was indicative of faecal contamination by poultry sources. Methods and Results: Faecally contaminated poultry litter and soils were used as source material for the development of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method targeting the 16S rRNA gene of a Brevibacterium sp. The identified sequence had 98% nucleotide identity to the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium avium. The qPCR method was tested on 17 soiled litter samples; 40 chicken faecal samples; and 116 nontarget faecal samples from cattle, swine, ducks, geese, and human sewage collected across the United States. The 571-bp product was detected in 76% of poultry-associated samples, but not in 93% of faecal samples from other sources. Marker concentrations were 107-109 gene copies per gram in soiled litter, up to 105 gene copies per gram in spread-site soils, and 107 gene copies per litre in field run-off water. Results were corroborated by a blinded study conducted by a second laboratory. Conclusion: The poultry-specific PCR product is a useful marker gene for assessing the impact of faecal contamination as a result of land-applied poultry litter. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study describes the first quantitative, sensitive and specific microbial source tracking method for the detection of poultry litter contamination. © 2010 The Authors.


Swift D.,North Wind Inc. | Rothermel J.,North Wind Inc. | Peterson L.,North Wind Inc. | Orr B.,North Wind Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Remediation | Year: 2012

A field pilot test in which hydraulic fracturing was used to emplace granular remediation amendment (a mixture of zero-valent iron [ZVI] and organic carbon) into fine-grained sandstone to remediate dissolved trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater was performed at a former intercontinental ballistic missile site in Colorado. Hydraulic fracturing was used to enhance the permeability of the aquifer with concurrent emplacement of amendment that facilitates TCE degradation. Geophysical monitoring and inverse modeling show that the network of amendment-filled fractures extends throughout the aquifer volume targeted in the pilot test zone. Two years of subsequent groundwater monitoring demonstrate that amendment addition resulted in development of geochemical conditions favorable to both abiotic and biological TCE degradation, that TCE concentrations were substantially reduced (i.e., greater than 90 percent reduction in TCE mass), and that the primary degradation processes are likely abiotic. The pilot-test data aided in re-evaluating the conceptual site model and in designing the full-scale remedy to address a larger portion of the TCE-contaminated groundwater plume. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Weidhaas J.L.,North Wind Inc. | Weidhaas J.L.,West Virginia University | Macbeth T.W.,CDM | Olsen R.L.,CDM | Harwood V.J.,University of South Florida
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

The impact of fecal contamination from human and agricultural animal waste on water quality is a major public health concern. Identification of the dominant source(s) of fecal pollution in a watershed is necessary for assessing the safety of recreational water and protecting water resources. A field study was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp. LA35 to track feces-contaminated poultry litter in environmental samples. Based on sensitivity and specificity characteristics of the qPCR method, the Bayesian conditional probability that detection of the LA35 marker gene in a water sample represented a true-positive result was 93%. The marker's covariance with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and metals associated with poultry litter was also assessed in litter, runoff, surface water, and groundwater samples. LA35 was detected in water and soil samples collected throughout the watershed, and its concentration covaried with concentrations of Escherichia coli, enterococci, As, Cu, P, and Zn. Significantly greater concentrations of FIB, As, Cu, P, and Zn were observed in edge-of-field runoff samples in which LA35 was detected, compared to samples in which it was not detected. Furthermore, As, Cu, P, and Zn concentrations covaried in environmental samples in which LA35 was detected and typically did not in samples in which the marker gene was not detected. The covariance of the poultry-specific LA35 marker gene with these known contaminants from poultry feces provides further evidence that it is a useful tool for assessing the impact of poultry-derived fecal pollution in environmental waters. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.


Conrad M.E.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Brodie E.L.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Radtke C.W.,Idaho National Laboratory | Bill M.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

For more than 10 years, electron donor has been injected into the Snake River aquifer beneath the Test Area North site of the Idaho National Laboratory for the purpose of stimulating microbial reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater. This has resulted in significant TCE removal from the source area of the contaminant plume and elevated dissolved CH4 in the groundwater extending 250 m from the injection well. The -13C of the CH4 increases from -56 in the source area to -13 with distance from the injection well, whereas the -13C of dissolved inorganic carbon decreases from 8 to -13, indicating a shift from methanogenesis to methane oxidation. This change in microbial activity along the plume axis is confirmed by PhyloChip microarray analyses of 16S rRNA genes obtained from groundwater microbial communities, which indicate decreasing abundances of reductive dechlorinating microorganisms (e.g., Dehalococcoides ethenogenes) and increasing CH4-oxidizing microorganisms capable of aerobic co-metabolism of TCE (e.g., Methylosinus trichosporium). Incubation experiments with 13C-labeled TCE introduced into microcosms containing basalt and groundwater from the aquifer confirm that TCE co-metabolism is possible. The results of these studies indicate that electron donor amendment designed to stimulate reductive dechlorination of TCE may also stimulate co-metabolism of TCE. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


The impact of fecal contamination from human and agricultural animal waste on water quality is a major public health concern. Identification of the dominant source(s) of fecal pollution in a watershed is necessary for assessing the safety of recreational water and protecting water resources. A field study was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp. LA35 to track feces-contaminated poultry litter in environmental samples. Based on sensitivity and specificity characteristics of the qPCR method, the Bayesian conditional probability that detection of the LA35 marker gene in a water sample represented a true-positive result was 93%. The markers covariance with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and metals associated with poultry litter was also assessed in litter, runoff, surface water, and groundwater samples. LA35 was detected in water and soil samples collected throughout the watershed, and its concentration covaried with concentrations of Escherichia coli, enterococci, As, Cu, P, and Zn. Significantly greater concentrations of FIB, As, Cu, P, and Zn were observed in edge-of-field runoff samples in which LA35 was detected, compared to samples in which it was not detected. Furthermore, As, Cu, P, and Zn concentrations covaried in environmental samples in which LA35 was detected and typically did not in samples in which the marker gene was not detected. The covariance of the poultry-specific LA35 marker gene with these known contaminants from poultry feces provides further evidence that it is a useful tool for assessing the impact of poultry-derived fecal pollution in environmental waters.


PubMed | North Wind Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied microbiology | Year: 2010

To identify a DNA sequence specific to a bacterium found in poultry litter that was indicative of faecal contamination by poultry sources.Faecally contaminated poultry litter and soils were used as source material for the development of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method targeting the 16S rRNA gene of a Brevibacterium sp. The identified sequence had 98% nucleotide identity to the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium avium. The qPCR method was tested on 17 soiled litter samples; 40 chicken faecal samples; and 116 nontarget faecal samples from cattle, swine, ducks, geese, and human sewage collected across the United States. The 571-bp product was detected in 76% of poultry-associated samples, but not in 93% of faecal samples from other sources. Marker concentrations were 10(7) -10(9) gene copies per gram in soiled litter, up to 10(5) gene copies per gram in spread-site soils, and 10(7) gene copies per litre in field run-off water. Results were corroborated by a blinded study conducted by a second laboratory.The poultry-specific PCR product is a useful marker gene for assessing the impact of faecal contamination as a result of land-applied poultry litter.This study describes the first quantitative, sensitive and specific microbial source tracking method for the detection of poultry litter contamination.


Trademark
Northwind Inc. | Date: 2013-02-21

Conveyor systems for use in the food processing industry.

Loading North Wind Inc. collaborators
Loading North Wind Inc. collaborators