Harrow on the Hill, United Kingdom
Harrow on the Hill, United Kingdom

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Piard J.,Besancon University Hospital Center | Piard J.,University of Burgundy | Holder-Espinasse M.,Lille University Hospital Center | Aral B.,University of Burgundy | And 16 more authors.
European Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2012

Poikiloderma occurs in a number of hereditary syndromes, the best known of which is Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS). Differential diagnoses include Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) with high genetic heterogeneity and Clericuzio-type Poikiloderma with Neutropenia (CPN) due to mutations in the C16orf57 gene. Mutations in the RECQL4 gene are only observed in two thirds of RTS patients. In this study, 10 patients referred for syndromic poikiloderma and negative for RECQL4 sequencing analysis were investigated for C16orf57 mutations. Two C16orf57 heterozygous nonsense mutations (p.W81X and p.Y89X) were identified in a 5-year-old female child presenting with generalized poikiloderma, dental dysplasia, gingivitis, nail dystrophy, palmoplantar keratoderma and pachyonychia of the great toenails. Previously undetected and silent neutropenia was evidenced after C16orf57 molecular analysis. Neutropenia was absent in the C16orf57-negative patients. This report confirms that neutrophil count should be performed in all patients with poikiloderma to target the C16orf57 gene sequencing analysis, prior to RECQL4 analysis. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Smith M.J.,University of Manchester | Kulkarni A.,North West Thames Regional Genetics Service | Rustad C.,University of Oslo | Bowers N.L.,University of Manchester | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2012

Schwannomatosis is a recently delineated inherited condition that has clinical overlap with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Diagnostic criteria have been developed to distinguish schwannomatosis from NF2, but the existence of mosaic NF2, which may closely mimic schwannomatosis, makes even these criteria problematic. In particular, it is not clear why there is a relative sparing of the cranial nerves from schwannomas in schwannomatosis. We have identified two individuals with schwannomatosis and a unilateral vestibular schwannoma (VS), where a diagnosis of NF2 has been excluded. A third case with an identified SMARCB1 mutation was reported by two radiologists to have a VS, but this was later confirmed as a jugular schwannoma. These cases question whether the current exclusion of a VS from the clinical diagnosis of schwannomatosis is justified. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Belfast City Hospital, University of Edinburgh, James Cook University, Auckland Hospital and 13 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of medical genetics. Part A | Year: 2016

KBG syndrome is characterized by short stature, distinctive facial features, and developmental/cognitive delay and is caused by mutations in ANKRD11, one of the ankyrin repeat-containing cofactors. We describe 32 KBG patients aged 2-47 years from 27 families ascertained via two pathways: targeted ANKRD11 sequencing (TS) in a group who had a clinical diagnosis of KBG and whole exome sequencing (ES) in a second group in whom the diagnosis was unknown. Speech delay and learning difficulties were almost universal and variable behavioral problems frequent. Macrodontia of permanent upper central incisors was seen in 85%. Other clinical features included short stature, conductive hearing loss, recurrent middle ear infection, palatal abnormalities, and feeding difficulties. We recognized a new feature of a wide anterior fontanelle with delayed closure in 22%. The subtle facial features of KBG syndrome were recognizable in half the patients. We identified 20 ANKRD11 mutations (18 novel: all truncating) confirmed by Sanger sequencing in 32 patients. Comparison of the two ascertainment groups demonstrated that facial/other typical features were more subtle in the ES group. There were no conclusive phenotype-genotype correlations. Our findings suggest that mutation of ANKRD11 is a common Mendelian cause of developmental delay. Affected patients may not show the characteristic KBG phenotype and the diagnosis is therefore easily missed. We propose updated diagnostic criteria/clinical recommendations for KBG syndrome and suggest that inclusion of ANKRD11 will increase the utility of gene panels designed to investigate developmental delay. 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Lawin O'Brien A.,Imperial College London | Dall'Asta A.,Imperial College London | Dall'Asta A.,University of Parma | Tapon D.,Imperial College London | And 7 more authors.
Prenatal Diagnosis | Year: 2016

Background: Few data exist describing laboratory related failure rates in prenatal diagnosis. The aim of this study is to assess the laboratory associated failure rate for karyotype, QF-PCR and CGH-array following amniocentesis in relation to gestation. Methods: Retrospective database study of amniocenteses performed 2004–2014 comparing laboratory failure rate for karyotype, QF-PCR and CGH-array between 16 + 0 and 40 + 0 weeks' gestation. Results: A total of 10 484 amniotic fluid test results were collected in three databases. Karyotype failed in 41/1797 (2.3%) tests; failure rate was significantly greater with advancing gestation reaching 43% at 36–40 weeks. QF-PCR failed in 132/5715 tests (2.3%) and was significantly greater with advancing gestation reaching 7% at 36–40 weeks. For CGH-array, 10/298 tests (3.4%) failed analysis. In one case, no result was obtainable by any technique. Conclusions: These data provide gestation specific laboratory failure rates for amniocentesis enabling informed decisions about the timing and laboratory technique most applicable to the clinical situation. Before 20 weeks, karyotype is least likely to fail of the three techniques. However, in the late third trimester, QF-PCR and, in particular, karyotyping are more likely to fail than CGH-array. Although there is some overlap between the three different tests, they may be preferentially offered in different clinical scenarios. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Van Kogelenberg M.,University of Otago | Ghedia S.,Sydney Childrens Hospital | McGillivray G.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Bruno D.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Syndromology | Year: 2010

Periventricular heterotopia (PH) is a brain malformation characterised by heterotopic nodules of neurons lining the walls of the cerebral ventricles. Mutations in FLNA account for 20-24% of instances but a majority have no identifiable genetic aetiology. Often the co-occurrence of PH with a chromosomal anomaly is used to infer a new locus for a Mendelian form of PH. This study reports four PH patients with three different microdeletion syndromes, each characterised by high-resolution genomic microarray. In three patients the deletions at 1p36 and 22q11 are conventional in size, whilst a fourth child had a deletion at 7q11.23 that was larger in extent than is typically seen in Williams syndrome. Although some instances of PH associated with chromosomal deletions could be attributed to the unmasking of a recessive allele or be indicative of more prevalent subclinical migrational anomalies, the rarity of PH in these three microdeletion syndromes and the description of other non-recurrent chromosomal defects do suggest that PH may be a manifestation of multiple different forms of chromosomal imbalance. In many, but possibly not all, instances the co-occurrence of PH with a chromosomal deletion is not necessarily indicative of uncharacterised underlying monogenic loci for this particular neuronal migrational anomaly. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG.


Poot M.,University Utrecht | Beyer V.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Schwaab I.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Damatova N.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | And 4 more authors.
Neurogenetics | Year: 2010

Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently harbour chromosome rearrangements and segmental aneuploidies, which allow us to identify candidate genes. In a boy with mild facial dysmorphisms, speech delay and ASD, we reconstructed by karyotyping, FISH and SNP array-based segmental aneuploidy profiling a highly complex chromosomal rearrangement involving at least three breaks in chromosome 1 and seven breaks in chromosome 7. Chromosome banding revealed an inversion of region 7q32.1-7q35 on the derivative chromosome 7. FISH with region-specific BACs mapped both inversion breakpoints and revealed additional breaks and structural changes in the CNTNAP2 gene. Two gene segments were transposed and inserted into the 1q31.2 region, while the CNTNAP2 segment between the two transposed parts as well as intron 13 to the 5-UTR were retained on the der(7). SNP array analysis revealed an additional de novo deletion encompassing the distal part of intron1 and exon 2 of CNTNAP2, which contains FOXP2 binding sites. Second, we found another de novo deletion on chromosome 1q41, containing 15 annotated genes, including KCTD3 and USH2A. Disruptions of the CNTNAP2 gene have been associated with ASD and with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). Comparison of disruptions of CNTNAP2 in patients with GTS and ASD suggests that large proximal disruptions result in either GTS or ASD, while relatively small distal disruptions may be phenotypically neutral. For full-blown ASD to develop, a proximal disruption of CNTNAP2 may have to occur concomitantly with additional genome mutations such as hemizygous deletions of the KCTD3 and USH2A genes. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | Imperial College London, Guys and St Thomas Hospital Foundation Trust and North West Thames Regional Genetics Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Prenatal diagnosis | Year: 2016

Few data exist describing laboratory related failure rates in prenatal diagnosis. The aim of this study is to assess the laboratory associated failure rate for karyotype, QF-PCR and CGH-array following amniocentesis in relation to gestation.Retrospective database study of amniocenteses performed 2004-2014 comparing laboratory failure rate for karyotype, QF-PCR and CGH-array between 16+0 and 40+0weeks gestation.A total of 10484 amniotic fluid test results were collected in three databases. Karyotype failed in 41/1797 (2.3%) tests; failure rate was significantly greater with advancing gestation reaching 43% at 36-40weeks. QF-PCR failed in 132/5715 tests (2.3%) and was significantly greater with advancing gestation reaching 7% at 36-40weeks. For CGH-array, 10/298 tests (3.4%) failed analysis. In one case, no result was obtainable by any technique.These data provide gestation specific laboratory failure rates for amniocentesis enabling informed decisions about the timing and laboratory technique most applicable to the clinical situation. Before 20weeks, karyotype is least likely to fail of the three techniques. However, in the late third trimester, QF-PCR and, in particular, karyotyping are more likely to fail than CGH-array. Although there is some overlap between the three different tests, they may be preferentially offered in different clinical scenarios. 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Ramesh R.,The Royal Free Hospital | Chen H.,University of Dundee | Kukula A.,The Royal Free Hospital | Wakeling E.L.,North West Thames Regional Genetics Service | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dermatological Science | Year: 2011

Background: X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a relatively common, recessive condition caused by mutations in the steroid sulfatase (STS) gene. Common loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) cause ichthyosis vulgaris and predispose individuals to atopic eczema. Objective: To test the hypothesis that co-inheritance of FLG mutations can act as a genetic modifier in XLI. Methods: An unusually severe XLI phenotype in addition to eczema and mild childhood asthma was investigated in a female Indian patient by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the common STS gene deletion. Direct sequencing of the entire FLG gene was also performed. Results: FISH analysis revealed that the proband was homozygous for the common STS genomic deletion mutation. Further investigation revealed a frame-shift mutation 3672del4 in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG), leading to premature termination of profilaggrin translation. Interestingly, her father, who had a very typical mild presentation of XLI, did not carry this FLG mutation in addition to his STS deletion. Her mother was a heterozygous carrier of the FLG mutation and consistent with this, had mild symptoms of ichthyosis vulgaris; she was also a heterozygous carrier of the STS deletion. Conclusion: This is the second reported case of the modifying effects of FLG null alleles on XLI and strengthens the hypothesis that filaggrin defects can synergize with STS deficiency to exacerbate the ichthyosis phenotype. © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology.

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