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Lilly J.M.,North West Research Associates | Scott R.K.,University of St. Andrews | Olhede S.C.,University College London
Geophysical Research Letters

A method for extracting time-varying oscillatory motions from time series records is applied to Lagrangian trajectories from a numerical model of eddies generated by an unstable equivalent barotropic jet on a beta plane. An oscillation in a Lagrangian trajectory is represented mathematically as the signal traced out as a particle orbits a time-varying ellipse, a model which captures wavelike motions as well as the displacement signal of a particle trapped in an evolving vortex. Such oscillatory features can be separated from the turbulent background flow through an analysis founded upon a complex-valued wavelet transform of the trajectory. Application of the method to a set of one hundred modeled trajectories shows that the oscillatory motions of Lagrangian particles orbiting vortex cores appear to be extracted very well by the method, which depends upon only a handful of free parameters and which requires no operator intervention. Furthermore, vortex motions are clearly distinguished from wavelike meandering of the jet-the former are high frequency, nearly circular signals, while the latter are linear in polarization and at much lower frequencies. This suggests that the proposed method can be useful for identifying and studying vortex and wave properties in large Lagrangian datasets. In particular, the eccentricity of the oscillatory displacement signals, a quantity which is not normally considered in Lagrangian studies, emerges as an informative diagnostic for characterizing qualitatively different types of motion. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

Wheatland M.S.,University of Sydney | Leka K.D.,North West Research Associates
Astrophysical Journal

A nonlinear force-free solution is constructed for the coronal magnetic field in NOAA solar active region (AR) 10953 based on a photospheric vector magnetogram derived from Hinode satellite observations on 2007 April 30, taking into account uncertainties in the boundary data and using improved methods for merging multiple-instrument data. The solution demonstrates the "self-consistency" procedure of Wheatland & Régnier, for the first time including uncertainties. The self-consistency procedure addresses the problem that photospheric vector magnetogram data are inconsistent with the force-free model, and in particular that the boundary conditions on vertical electric current density are overspecified and permit the construction of two different nonlinear force-free solutions. The procedure modifies the boundary conditions on current density during a sequence of cycles until the two nonlinear force-free solutions agree. It hence constructs an accurate single solution to the force-free model, with boundary values close, but not matched exactly, to the vector magnetogram data. The inclusion of uncertainties preserves the boundary conditions more closely at points with smaller uncertainties. The self-consistent solution obtained for AR 10953 is significantly non-potential, with magnetic energy E/E0 ≈ 1.08, where E0 is the energy of the reference potential (current-free) magnetic field. The self-consistent solution is shown to be robust against changes in the details of the construction of the two force-free models at each cycle. This suggests that reliable nonlinear force-free modeling of ARs is possible if uncertainties in vector magnetogram boundary data are included. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. Source

Martinez Oliveros J.C.,University of California at Berkeley | Lindsey C.,North West Research Associates | Hudson H.S.,University of California at Berkeley | Hudson H.S.,University of Glasgow | Buitrago Casas J.C.,National University of Colombia
Solar Physics

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provides a new tool for the systematic observation of white-light flares, including Doppler and magnetic information as well as continuum. In our initial analysis of the highly impulsive γ-ray flare SOL2010-06-12T00:57 (Martínez Oliveros et al., Solar Phys. 269, 269, 2011), we reported the signature of a strong blueshift in the two footpoint sources. Concerned that this might be an artifact due to aliasing peculiar to the HMI instrument, we undertook a comparative analysis of Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG++) observations of the same flare, using the PArametric Smearing Correction ALgorithm (PASCAL) algorithm to correct for artifacts caused by variations in atmospheric smearing. This analysis confirms the artifactual nature of the apparent blueshift in the HMI observations, finding weak redshifts at the footpoints instead. We describe the use of PASCAL with GONG++ observations as a complement to the SDO observations and discuss constraints imposed by the use of HMI far from its design conditions. With proper precautions, these data provide rich information on flares and transients. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Liepert B.G.,North West Research Associates
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change

Since the beginning of the debate on global climate change, scientists, economists, and policymakers alike have been using 'climate forcing' as a convenient measure for evaluating climate change. Researchers who run complex computer models conceived the theoretical concept of climate forcing in the late 1960s (Charney Report, 1979). This overview describes the development and basics of the physical framework, as radiative energy imbalance in the atmosphere, inflicted by a perturbation in the climate system. Such disturbances and forced changes can alter processes in the climate system, which enhance or dampen the initial effects and thus introduce positive or negative feedback loops. With increased understanding of the nature of the climate system, this basic concept has become more complex and hencemore difficult to interpret. The identification of additional anthropogenic disturbances, the interdependence of individual forcings, and difficulties to account for spatial and temporal variabilities of disturbances are only few issues that complicate the overall picture.Although numerous scientific studies exist that evaluate climate forcings by allocating watts per square meter values to individual forcings (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports, 2010), the actual number of publications that interpret the physical meaning of the climate-forcing concept remains surprisingly small. Here, this overview focuses on explaining to an interdisciplinary audience the physical interpretation of the concept, including its limitations. It also examines new developments, such as polluter-based emission scenarios, energy budget approaches, and climate impacts other than temperature change. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Kuo S.,New York University | Snyder A.,North West Research Associates | Kossey P.,Air Force Research Lab | Chang C.-L.,BAE Systems | Labenski J.,BAE Systems
Geophysical Research Letters

Theory of a beat-wave mechanism for very low frequency (VLF) wave generation in the ionosphere is presented. The VLF current is produced by beating two high power HF waves of slightly different frequencies through the nonlinearity and inhomogeneity of the ionospheric plasma. Theory also shows that the density irregularities can enhance the beat-wave generation. An experiment was conducted by transmitting two high power HF waves of 3.2 MHz and 3.2 MHz + f, where f = 5, 8, 13, and 2.02 kHz, from the HAARP transmitter. In the experiment, the ionosphere was underdense to the O-mode heater, i.e., the heater frequency f0 > foF2, and overdense or slightly underdense to the X-mode heater, i.e., f0 < fxF2 or f0 > fxF2. The radiation intensity increased with the VLF wave frequency, was much stronger with the X-mode heaters, and was not sensitive to the electrojet. The strongest VLF radiation of 13 kHz was generated when the reflection layer of the X-mode heater was just slightly below the foF2 layer and the spread of the O-mode sounding echoes had the largest enhancement, suggesting an optimal setting for beat-wave generation of VLF waves by the HF heaters. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

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