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Withington, United Kingdom

Barrow P.J.,Royal Infirmary | Ingham S.,Oxford Genetics | Ingham S.,University of Manchester | O'Hara C.,North West Cancer Intelligence Service | And 5 more authors.
Familial Cancer | Year: 2013

Urological tumours are the third most frequent malignancy in Lynch syndrome after colonic and endometrial cancer. Upper urinary tract tumours are well recognised in Lynch syndrome, but the association with prostate and bladder cancer is controversial. We determined the incidence and cumulative and relative risks of prostate and bladder cancer in a cohort of Lynch syndrome families. Male Lynch syndrome mutation carriers and their genetically untested male first degree relatives (FDR) were identified from the Manchester Regional Lynch syndrome database (n = 821). Time to the development of urological cancer was identified for each urological site (renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and prostate). Cumulative and relative risks were calculated, with results classified by mutation carrier status and specific causative genetic mutations. Eight prostate cancers were identified, only one occurring before the age of 60. Analysis of person-years at risk of prostate cancer by Lynch syndrome mutation carrier status suggests a correlation between MSH2 mutation carriers and a tenfold increased risk of prostate cancer (RR 10.41; 95 % CI 2.80, 26.65). No such association was found with bladder cancer (RR 1.88; 95 % CI 0.21, 6.79). The association of upper urinary tract tumours with MSH2 and MLH1 mutations was confirmed. We have carried out the largest study of male Lynch syndrome mutation carriers to establish the risks of urological malignancy. A tenfold increased risk of prostate cancer is supported in MSH2 with mutation carriers having roughly double the risk of prostate cancer to FDRs. A trial of PSA testing in MSH2 carriers from 40 to 50 years may be justifiable. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Wilding A.,University of Manchester | Ingham S.L.,University of Manchester | Lalloo F.,University of Manchester | Clancy T.,University of Manchester | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2012

Background Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL), and Gorlin syndrome (GS) are single gene diseases that predispose to early onset tumours. Few studies have assessed the effect of these diseases on life expectancy. This study's aim was to assess this effect, and to test the hypothesis that genetic registers increase survival. Method NF1, NF2, VHL, FAP, and GS patients were identified through the North West Regional Genetic Register Service and the North West Cancer Intelligence Service. Information on benign and malignant tumours, and deaths were obtained. KaplaneMeier curves were used to show actuarial survival rates for each disease, compared to the local population, and in patients diagnosed pre/post the regional genetic register. Log rank (ManteleCox) tests were used to compare survival between groups. Results Life expectancies were significantly reduced for all diseases investigated compared with the local population (80.0 years) (p=0.05). GS had the longest life expectancy at 73.4 years, followed by NF1 at 71.5 years, NF2 at 69.0 years, FAP at 63.6 years, and VHL at 52.5 years. Patients diagnosed after establishment of the genetic register had an increase in survival compared to those diagnosed pre-1990: NF2 (14.7 years), FAP (13.9 years), VHL (16.3 years), and GS (11.2 years). Conclusion Life expectancy for all five diseases was less than normal, although in recent years this reached the level of the local population in GS. Although there have been improvements in all conditions which may in part be attributable to better targeted care through the genetic register service, more needs to be done to address the very poor life expectancy in VHL. Source

Ingham S.,University of Manchester | Huson S.M.,University of Manchester | Moran A.,North West Cancer Intelligence Service | Wylie J.,Christie Hospital | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are the main soft tissue malignancy associated with neurofibromatosis 1. These uncommon tumours are known to occur at high frequency and lead to poor survival. Our aim was to determine risk of MPNST in NF1 patients, and survival rates. Methods: The incidence of MPNST in NF1 was identified through the NF1 genetic register and The North West Cancer Intelligence Service (NWCIS). Data were used to generate incidence and survival curves. Strict regional boundaries were adhered to avoid ascertainment bias. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to determine five and ten-year survival. Results: Of the 1059 NF1 patients 52 developed MPNST (30 cases in females and 22 in males), 43 cases were resident within the strict regional boundary. The risk of MPNST was 10.2% in males and 12.7% in females by age 70 years (p = 0.9), with a statistically better survival in females than males (5 and 10 year survival 46% and 41.5% versus 22% and 8.2%; p = 0.05). Survival was also significantly improved for patients diagnosed in the last 14 years compared to the previous 13-year period (p = 0.03). Conclusion: With fifteen strict regional MPNSTs in the fourteen years since our previous population study an annual incidence of above 1 per 1000 NF1 patients has now been maintained over a 27-year period. No significant increase in risk of MPNST in females compared to males was found, though the difference in survival is intriguing. Male survival is particularly poor with <10% alive at 10 years. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Moran A.,North West Cancer Intelligence Service | O'Hara C.,North West Cancer Intelligence Service | Khan S.,North West Cancer Intelligence Service | Shack L.,University of Calgary | And 6 more authors.
Familial Cancer | Year: 2012

The risks of cancers other than breast and ovarian amongst BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are based on relatively few family based studies with the risk of specific cancers tested in population based samples of cancers from founder populations. We assessed risks of ''other cancers'' in 268 BRCA1 families and 222 BRCA2 families using a person years at risk analysis from 1975 to 2005. Cancer confirmations were overall higher than in previous family based studies at 64%. There was no overall increase in risk for BRCA1 carriers although oesophagus had a significant increased RR of 2.9 (95% CI 1.1-6.0) and stomach at 2.4 (95% CI 1.2-4.3), these were based mainly on unconfirmed cases. For BRCA2 increased risks for cancers of the pancreas (RR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9-7.8) and prostate (RR 6.3, 95% CI 4.3-9.0) and uveal melanoma (RR 99.4, 95% CI 11.1-359.8) were confirmed. Possible new associations with oesophagus (RR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9-7.8) and stomach (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-4.8) were detected but these findings should be treated with caution due to lower confirmation rates. In contrast to previous research a higher risk of prostate cancer was found in males with mutations in the BRCA2 OCCR region. The present study strengthens the known links between BRCA2 and pancreatic and prostate cancer, but throws further doubt onto any association with BRCA1. New associations with upper gastro-intestinal malignancy need to be treated with caution and confirmed by large prospective studies. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011. Source

Arora R.S.,University of Manchester | Alston R.D.,University of Manchester | Eden T.O.B.,University of Manchester | Estlin E.J.,Paediatric Oncology | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Reported increases in the incidence of CNS tumours in the developed world in the 1970s to 1990s have been a cause for concern and debate. It still remains to be adequately answered whether these increases are true or an artefact of changes in diagnostic and registration practices. Using high-quality national cancer registration data, we have analysed incidence trends for each major histological subgroup of CNS tumour (2000 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification) registered in those aged 0-84 years for the whole of England during the period 1979 through 2003. 134,509 primary CNS tumours of malignant, benign and uncertain behaviour located in the brain, meninges, spinal cord, cranial nerves, other parts of the central nervous system and in the pituitary and pineal glands were registered. In summary, we present the single largest nationwide study on the longitudinal incidence trends of CNS tumours. The increase in incidence observed in the 1970s and 1980s was mainly in the young and the elderly and has now plateaued and may even be decreasing. There is however variation in trends by histology. The incidence of some histological sub-groups has continued to increase until the most recent period of analysis. Much of the initial increase can be attributed to the emergence of much more widely available neuroimaging, while the most recent incidence changes for specific sub-groups of CNS tumours appear to be due to greater diagnostic specificity leading to a shift in registered categories. However, the trends for high-grade astrocytomas and other gliomas need further observation and investigation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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