Callaghan R.C.,University of Northern British Columbia |
Callaghan R.C.,University of Toronto |
Callaghan R.C.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health |
Allebeck P.,Karolinska Institutet |
And 2 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2013
Purpose: Cannabis (marijuana) smoke and tobacco smoke contain many of the same potent carcinogens, but a critical - yet unresolved - medical and public-health issue is whether cannabis smoking might facilitate the development of lung cancer. The current study aimed to assess the risk of lung cancer among young marijuana users. Methods: A population-based cohort study examined men (n = 49,321) aged 18-20 years old assessed for cannabis use and other relevant variables during military conscription in Sweden in 1969-1970. Participants were tracked until 2009 for incident lung cancer outcomes in nationwide linked medical registries. Cox regression modeling assessed relationships between cannabis smoking, measured at conscription, and the hazard of subsequently receiving a lung cancer diagnosis. Results: At the baseline conscription assessment, 10.5 % (n = 5,156) reported lifetime use of marijuana and 1.7 % (n = 831) indicated lifetime use of more than 50 times, designated as "heavy" use. Cox regression analyses (n = 44,284) found that such "heavy" cannabis smoking was significantly associated with more than a twofold risk (hazard ratio 2.12, 95 % CI 1.08-4.14) of developing lung cancer over the 40-year follow-up period, even after statistical adjustment for baseline tobacco use, alcohol use, respiratory conditions, and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Our primary finding provides initial longitudinal evidence that cannabis use might elevate the risk of lung cancer. In light of the widespread use of marijuana, especially among adolescents and young adults, our study provides important data for informing the risk-benefit calculus of marijuana smoking in medical, public-health, and drug-policy settings. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Sidorchuk A.,Karolinska Institutet |
Sidorchuk A.,North State Medical University |
Hemmingsson T.,Karolinska Institutet |
Romelsjo A.,Karolinska Institutet |
Allebeck P.,Karolinska Institutet
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Background: The role of alcohol consumption for disability pension (DP) is controversial and systematic reviews have not established causality. We aimed to assess the role of adolescent alcohol use for future DP. We wanted to find out whether an increased risk mainly would affect DP occurring early or late in life as well as whether the level of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking contribute differently in DP receiving. Methodology/Principal Findings: The study is a 39-year follow-up of 49 321 Swedish men born in 1949-1951 and conscripted for compulsory military service in 1969-1970. As study exposures (i) "risk use" of alcohol composed of measures related to pattern of drinking, and (ii) the level of consumption based on self-reported volume and frequency of drinking had been used. Information on DP was obtained from social insurance databases through 2008. "Risk use" of alcohol was associated with both "early DP" and "late DP", i.e. granted below and above the approximate age of 40 years, with crude hazard ratio (HR) of 2.89 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.47-3.38) and HR of 1.87 (95%CI: 1.74-2.02), respectively. After adjustment for covariates, HR was reduced to 1.32 (95%CI: 1.09-1.59) and 1.14 (95%CI: 1.05-1.25), respectively. Similar patterns were seen for moderate (101-250 g 100% alcohol/week) and high (>250 g) consumption, though the risk disappeared when fully adjusted. Conclusions/Significance: Alcohol use in adolescence, particularly measured as "risk use", is associated with increased risk of future DP. The association is stronger for "early DP", but remains significant even for DP granted in older ages. Therefore, pattern of drinking in adolescent should be considered an important marker for future reduced work capacity. © 2012 Sidorchuk et al.
Solomennyi A.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Goncharov A.,North State Medical University |
Zueva L.,North State Medical University
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2015
The high incidence of mortality in patients with severe burns can be attributed to bloodstream infections caused by drug-resistant microorganisms. Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and class 1 integron PCR amplification were performed to investigate an extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB) strain recovered from a blood culture of a patient admitted to a burn intensive care unit in St Petersburg (Russian Federation). This case study describes an XDR-AB strain of multilocus sequence type ST231 with a blaGES-12 gene cassette encoding a very potent ceftazidimase located inside of a composite class 1 integron. This is the first documented case of XDR-AB belonging to the international clonal lineage I in Russia. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Sidorov P.I.,North State Medical University
Human Ecology | Year: 2014
In the article, there have been separated factors and tendencies of changes of mental ecology in the modern world, augmentation of anomia and permissiveness, deformation of personality and social identity leading to wider and uncontrolled reproduction of social troubles and dependent disorders creating a threat to national security in the form of social epidemies. There have been described the structure and fractal ontogenetic dynamics of the demoralization syndrome. There has been grounded the synergetic approach to organization of an effective response in the form of development of a pilot model of systemic monitoring and a mental health service allowing to provide new quality of medico-psycho-socio-spiritual defense of the nation's mental health and treatment of mental illnesses.
Mar'yanovich A.T.,North State Medical University
Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2016
Literature and own data on central effects of regulatory peptides (155 substances from 32 families) have been analyzed. Peptides produced by peripheral tissues affect the brain through the almost impermeable for them blood–brain barrier and evoke numerous central effects. The mechanisms of this impact are as follows: peptides bind to specific receptors located on vagal afferent terminals and in the circumventricular organs as well as (to a lesser extent) penetrate into the brain with the aid of specific transport systems or by simple diffusion. The number of these trans-barrier communications depends on the evolutionary age of the regulated physiological function: the more ancient the function is, the greater number of peripheral peptides are involved in such trans-barrier communications. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Zheglova M.Y.,North State Medical University |
Danilov R.K.,North State Medical University
Genes and Cells | Year: 2015
A histological characteristic of the epithelial lining of the cervix is the most important criterion for evaluating its reactive changes. The aim of the research is to give the morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelial cells (epitheliocytes) of the cervix in human prenatal ontogenesis. 50 embryos and prefetuses from 4 to 12 weeks of fetal development, and 64 fetuses from 13 to 30 weeks of gestation have been studied. Analysis was performed by using the histochemical, morphometric, cytospectrophotometric and statistical methods. Paramesonephric duct development occurs involving the coelomic epithelium, mesonephric duct epithelium and undifferentiated cells in the part of the urogenital blastema. In the late 12th and early 13th week of fetal development there is a particular area where a close interaction of the epithelial lining of the combined paramesonephric and mesonephric ducts and the dorsal wall of the urogenital area is found. The connection of the uterine channel with the external environment is formed from 13th to 20th week of development. Invagination of the epithelial lining of the urogenital sinus towards the united paramesonephric ducts and the formation of a genital cord take part in this process. The junction of two kinds of epithelia: The vaginal mucosa and cervical mucosa is formed since 25th weeks of gestation. In the basal part of the cervical epithelium the individual cells are detected. According to the results of the research these cells should be classified as a derivative of the epithelial lining of the urogenital sinus. They retain their determination and due to the character of their localization may be referred to the dispersed cellular system of the mucous membrane of the cervix.
Baryshnikova N.V.,North State Medical University
Beneficial Microbes | Year: 2012
This article presents the results of original research conducted in St. Petersburg, Russia, which showed that the Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with duodenal ulcer and chronic gastroduodenitis possess significantly higher levels of the pathogenicity islands (cag-PAI) genes than the strains isolated from healthy volunteers. The most frequently detected cag-PAI genes were cagA and cagH in the strains isolated from patients with chronic gastroduodenitis, and cagA and cagE in the strains isolated from patients with duodenal ulcer. A comparison of the clinical strains isolated from patients from St. Petersburg, Russia and patients from Dushanbe, Tajikistan showed that cagA gene was more prevalent in the strains from St. Petersburg. These findings demonstrate the necessity of implementation of molecular genetic identification of H. pylori in the clinical diagnostics practice reflecting the virulent genes profile of the strain. Addition of probiotics to the standard eradication therapy of H. pylori significantly improves the results of this therapy. © 2012 Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Zheglova M.,North State Medical University
Genes and Cells | Year: 2014
The aim of the research was to give the morphofunctional characteristics of embryonic histogenesis of the female genital tract abortuses. We have studied 50 abortuses at the age of 4-12 weeks of gestation. The fixation of material and of the sample preparations were carried out according to the principles of quantitative histochemistry. According to the data obtained, paramesonefric ducts are found in the composition of the urogenital blastema to which coelomic epithelium cells can migrate. Since in this time the more differentiated ducts are mesonefric and archinephron is the organ that carries out its function, it is undeniable that the development of paramesonefric ducts goes on vector of the cranio-caudal growth of mesonefric ducts. The formation of a common utero-vaginal canal occurs through the convergence of the paramesonefric duct walls. Herewith the septum between ducts is persisted. Epitheliocytes in the medial walls of the ducts are deformed, nuclei decrease in size. The shape of the nuclei changes and rectangular nuclei dominate. The cells which have a light nucleoplasm are detected, in other cells there is a piknotic nucleus in the center; there are cells with nuclei having the semilunar shape, cells with two fragments of the nucleus, one of which is dark and the other one is light; nucleus with cuspidal protrusions at one pole, cigar-shaped nucleus. The formation of the complex relationships between the paramesonefric ducts at the entrance into mesenchymal block allows to make a suggestion on the critical period of the female genital tract development.
Sukhanov D.S.,North State Medical University
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv | Year: 2012
Aim. To comparatively evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of reamberine, remaxol, and exogenous ademethionine and a risk for unfavorable/favorable outcomes of their use in patients with liver injury during antituberculosis chemotherapy. Subjects and methods. One hundred and eighty patients with new-onset respiratory tuberculosis were examined and divided into 4 groups (45 patients in each group): Study Croup 1 (SG1): patients who took reamberine; Study Group 2 (SG2): those who received remaxol; Study Group 3 (SG3): those who had ademethionine; and a Comparative Group (CG): those who received 5% glucose solution. The test drugs were intravenously administered in a dropwise manner once daily for 10 days. The laboratory hepatic injury severity index (LHISI) was estimated according to the method described by T.N. Kalachnyuk and the risk for a favorable/unfavorable outcome was assessed, by calculating the average cost of the used hepatotropic agents. Results. LHISI increased statistically significantly with the development of liver Injury induced by antituberculosis agents. There was a statistically significant reduction in LHISI during therapy with the test hepatotropic agents versus glucose solution, the most pronounced activity being shown by remaxol. Relative risk (RR) and odds ratio (OR) assessments revealed the high likelihood of a favorable outcome (a reduction in LHISI) when each of the 3 test drugs versus glucose solution was administered; the highest RR and OR were also found in the use of remaxol. Estimation of costs and the number of patients to be treated (NPBT) in order to avoid a case of none LHLIS reduction could reveal the highest efficacy of remaxol. Conclusion. The test agents (reamberine, remaxol, and ademethionine) are effective in treating tuberculosis patients with druginduced liver injury. The administration of remaxol demonstrated the highest positive effect (as estimated by LHISI) in terms of both RR and NPBT.
Pechersky A.,North State Medical University
Central European Journal of Urology | Year: 2014
Introduction Decreasing of testosterone level is an important part of a male elderly.Material and methods To describe this phenomenon a PubMed and national databases were searched for 17β-dehydrotestosterone, common testosterone, free testosterone, 17β-estradiol, luteinizing hormone, partial androgen deficiency of aging men.Results The reduction in intensity of the processes of tissue renewal of the testicles results in a partial androgen deficiency of aging men. A decrease in the levels of total and free testosterone and an increase in the levels of 5α-dihydrotestosterone, 17β-estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, LH and FSH, along with a decrease in the amplitude of the rhythm of incretion of LH, FSH and total testosterone will testify to a deficiency of testosterone.Conclusions It is very important to make an individualized selection of the dose of testosterone preparation which enters the blood plasma. Key Words 5α-dehydrotestosterone, common testosterone, free testosterone, 17β-estradiol, luteinizing hormone, partial androgen deficiency of aging men © 2014 Polish Urological Association. All rights reserved.