North Shore University Health System

Evanston, IL, United States

North Shore University Health System

Evanston, IL, United States
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Stone J.L.,North Shore University Health System | Patel V.,North Shore University Health System | Bailes J.E.,North Shore University Health System
Journal of Neurosurgery | Year: 2016

The authors trace the Oxford, England, roots of World War II (WWII)-related advances in head injury management, the biomechanics of concussion and brain injury, and postwar delineation of pathological fndings in severe concussion and diffuse brain injury in man. The prominent fgure in these developments was the charismatic and innovative Harvey Cushing-trained neurosurgeon Sir Hugh Cairns. Cairns, who was to closely emulate Cushing's surgical and scholarly approach, is credited with saving thousands of lives during WWII by introducing and implementing innovative programs such as helmets for motorcyclists, mobile neurosurgical units near battle zones, and the military usage of penicillin. In addition, he inspired and taught a generation of neurosurgeons, neurologists, and neurological nurses in the care of brain and spinal cord injuries at Oxford's Military Hospital for Head Injuries. During this time Cairns also trained the frst full-time female neurosurgeon. Pivotal in supporting animal research demonstrating the critical role of acceleration in the causation of concussion, Cairns recruited the physicist Hylas Holbourn, whose research implicated rotary acceleration and shear strains as particularly damaging. Cairns' work in military medicine and head injury remain highly in?uential in efforts to mitigate and manage brain injury. © 2016 AANS.

Kudrna J.,North Shore University Health System
Current Orthopaedic Practice | Year: 2013

Patients who undergo total knee arthroplasty are at risk of developing venous thromboembolism. Thromboprophylaxis is widely accepted as standard of care in patients receiving total knee arthroplasty, but implementation of clinical practice guidelines is hampered by several barriers, including limitations of current agents. New anticoagulants in clinical development offer equivalent or superior efficacy and safety to existing anticoagulants and the added convenience of oral administration. To date, rivaroxaban is the only new oral anticoagulant with regulatory approval for total knee arthroplasty in the United States, although dabigatran and apixaban are approved in other countries. For total knee arthroplasty, neuraxial blockade offers advantages over general anesthesia and narcotic-based systemic analgesia, but it carries a risk of spinal hematoma if used in conjunction with antithrombotics. Clinical practice guidelines already exist for the use of neuraxial blockade with traditional antithrombotics, and similar evidence-based recommendations are required for the new oral anticoagulants. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health.

Feldman T.,North Shore University Health System | Salinger M.H.,North Shore University Health System | Levisay J.P.,North Shore University Health System | Smart S.,North Shore University Health System
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2014

Background Paravalvular leak (PVL) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with less good outcomes. The use of percutaneous plugs is among the strategies to treat PVL after TAVR. Plugs have been limited by the need to pass 4-6 F delivery sheaths between the TAVR stent frame and the native valve leaflets. Methods The study population consists of six patients who had at least moderate aortic insufficiency (AI), and also developed symptoms of heart failure after TAVR. We describe in detail the use of low profile vascular plugs that require crossing the leaks with only a 4 F diagnostic catheter. Results Low profile vascular plugs were successfully deployed in all six patients without significant complications. Fluoroscopy time ranged 16.7-69.4 min (44.8 ± 18.8 min). Contrast volume ranged 15-100 mL (45 ± 34 mL). One plug was used in five, and two adjacent plus in one case. AI severity was reduced from moderate or severe to mild or less in four patients, from severe to moderate in one, and in one, there was no change. Five of six patients were treated electively and were significantly improved in terms of both echocardiographic PVL and also symptoms. The one who did not have echocardiographic improvement did not improve clinically and expired one month later. Conclusions PVL closure can be consistently accomplished after TAVR with low profile vascular plugs. Careful analysis of PVL location on echo before closure greatly facilitates finding the fluoroscopic location of the leak. Decreases in PVL severity are associated with significant clinical improvement. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Stockton R.A.,University of California at San Diego | Shenkar R.,North Shore University Health System | Shenkar R.,University of Chicago | Awad I.A.,North Shore University Health System | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2010

Endothelial cell-cell junctions regulate vascular permeability, vasculogenesis, and angiogenesis. Familial cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) in humans result from mutations of CCM2 (malcavernin, OSM, MGC4607), PDCD10 (CCM3), or KRIT1 (CCM1), a Rap1 effector which stabilizes endothelial cell-cell junctions. Homozygous loss of KRIT1 or CCM2 produces lethal vascular phenotypes in mice and zebrafish. We report that the physical interaction of KRIT1 and CCM2 proteins is required for endothelial cell-cell junctional localization, and lack of either protein destabilizes barrier function by sustaining activity of RhoA and its effector Rho kinase (ROCK). Protein haploinsufficient Krit1+/- or Ccm2+/- mouse endothelial cells manifested increased monolayer permeability in vitro, and both Krit1 +/- and Ccm2+/- mice exhibited increased vascular leak in vivo, reversible by fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor. Furthermore, we show that ROCK hyperactivity occurs in sporadic and familial human CCM endothelium as judged by increased phosphorylation of myosin light chain. These data establish that KRIT1-CCM2 interaction regulates vascular barrier function by suppressing Rho/ROCK signaling and that this pathway is dysregulated in human CCM endothelium, and they suggest that fasudil could ameliorate both CCM disease and vascular leak. © 2010 Stockton et al.

Ammirati M.,Ohio State University | Wei L.,Ohio State University | Ciric I.,North Shore University Health System
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery has become increasingly more popular for the removal of pituitary adenomas. It is also widely recognised that transsphenoidal microscopic removal of pituitary adenomas is a well-established procedure with good outcomes. Our objective was to meta-analyse the short-term results of endoscopic and microscopic pituitary adenoma surgery. We undertook a systematic review of the English literature on results of transsphenoidal surgery, both microscopic and endoscopic from 1990 to 2011. Series with less than 10 patients were excluded. Pooled data were analysed using meta-analysis techniques to obtain estimate of death, complication rates and extent of tumour removal. Complications evaluated included cerebrospinal fluid leak, meningitis, vascular complications, visual complications, diabetes insipidus, hypopituitarism and cranial nerve injury. Data were also analysed for tumour size and sex. 38 studies met the inclusion criteria yielding 24 endoscopic and 22 microscopic datasets (eight studies included both endoscopic and microscopic series). Meta-analysis of the available literature showed that the endoscopic transsphenoidal technique was associated with a higher incidence of vascular complications (p<0.0001). No difference was found between the two techniques in all other variables examined. Meta-analysis of the available literature reveals that endoscopic removal of pituitary adenoma, in the short term, does not seem to confer any advantages over the microscopic technique and the incidence of reported vascular complications was higher with endoscopic than with microscopic removal of pituitary adenomas. While we recognise the limitations of meta-analysis, our study suggests that a multicentre, randomised, comparative effectiveness study of the microscopic and endoscopic transsphenoidal techniques may be a reasonable approach towards establishing a true valuation of these techniques.

Wong R.H.,University of Chicago | Bailes J.E.,North Shore University Health System
Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis | Year: 2013

Intraventricular hemorrhage is a frequent complication of intracerebral hemorrhage and is independently associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Intraventricular fibrinolytic therapy is used with increasing frequency to accelerate clot clearance. We review the recent evidence and discuss the therapeutic benefits as well as the current concerns and limitations of fibrinolytic use in this setting. © 2013 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Hess C.N.,Duke University | Peterson E.D.,Duke University | Peng S.A.,Duke University | De Lemos J.A.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2015

Background Antithrombotic therapy for acute myocardial infarction (MI) with atrial fibrillation (AF) among higher risk older patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unclear. Objectives This study sought to determine appropriate antithrombotic therapy for acute MI patients with AF treated with PCI. Methods We examined 4,959 patients ≥65 years of age with acute MI and AF who underwent coronary stenting (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry-Get With the Guidelines). The primary effectiveness outcome was 2-year major adverse cardiac events (MACE) comprising death, readmission for MI, or stroke; the primary safety outcome was bleeding readmission. Outcomes with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) or triple therapy (DAPT plus warfarin) were compared using Cox proportional hazard modeling with inverse probability-weighted propensity adjustment. Results Among 4,959 patients, 27.6% (n = 1,370) were discharged on triple therapy. Relative to DAPT, patients on triple therapy had a similar risk of MACE (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86 to 1.16]) but significantly greater risk of bleeding requiring hospitalization (adjusted HR: 1.61 [95% CI: 1.31 to 1.97]) and greater risk of intracranial hemorrhage (adjusted HR: 2.04 [95% CI: 1.25 to 3.34]). Of 1,591 Medicare Part D patients, 90-day post-discharge warfarin persistence among patients discharged on warfarin was 93.2% (n = 412). Results of 90-day landmark analyses comparing triple therapy versus DAPT in patients persistently on warfarin versus those not discharged on warfarin who had not filled a warfarin prescription were similar to our primary findings. Conclusions Approximately 1 in 4 older AF patients undergoing PCI for MI were discharged on triple therapy. Those receiving triple therapy versus DAPT had higher rates of major bleeding without a measurable difference in composite MI, death, or stroke. © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Ming D.Y.,Duke University | Chen L.F.,Duke University | Miller B.A.,North Shore University Health System | Sexton D.J.,Duke University | Anderson D.J.,Duke University
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology | Year: 2012

objective. To describe the epidemiology of surgical-site infections (SSIs) in community hospitals and to explore the impact of depth of SSI, healthcare location at the time of diagnosis, and variations in surveillance practices on the overall rate of SSI. design. Retrospective cohort study. setting. Thirty-seven community hospitals in the southeastern United States. patients. Consecutive sample of patients undergoing surgical procedures between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2008. methods. ANOVA was used to compare rates of SSIs, and the F test was used to compare the distribution of rates of SSIs. Wilcoxon rank-sum was used to test for differences in performance rankings of hospitals. results. Following 177,706 surgical procedures, 1,919 SSIs were identified (incidence, 1.08 per 100 procedures). Sixty-four percent (1,223 of 1,919) of these were identified as complex SSIs; 87% of the complex SSIs were diagnosed in inpatient settings. The median proportion of superficial-incisional SSIs was 37% (interquartile range, 29.6%-49.5%). Postdischarge SSI surveillance was variable, with 58% of responding hospitals using surgeon letters. As reporting focus was narrowed from all SSIs to complex SSIs (incidence, 0.69 per 100 procedures) and, finally, to complex SSIs diagnosed in the inpatient setting (incidence, 0.51 per 100 procedures), variance in rates changed significantly (P=.02). Performance ranking of individual hospitals, based on rates of SSIs, differed significantly, depending on the reporting method utilized (P=.0006). conclusions. Inconsistent reporting methods focused on variable depths of infection and healthcare location at time of diagnosis significantly impact rates of SSI, distribution of rates of SSI, and hospital comparative-performance rankings.We believe that public reporting of SSI rates should be limited to complex SSIs diagnosed in the inpatient setting. © 2012 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved.

Wong R.H.,University of Chicago | Wong A.K.,North Shore University Health System | Bailes J.E.,North Shore University Health System
Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery | Year: 2014

Background A growing body of research suggests that subconcussive head impacts or repetitive mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) can have cumulative and deleterious effects. Several studies have investigated head impacts in football at the professional, collegiate, and high school levels, in an attempt to elucidate the biomechanics of head impacts among football players. Youth football players, generally from 7 to 14 years of age, constitute 70% of all football players, yet burden of, and susceptibility to, head injury in this population is not well known. Methods A novel impact sensor utilizing binary force switches (Shockbox®) was used to follow an entire Pop Warner football team consisting of twenty-two players for six games and five practices. The impact sensor was designed to record impacts with linear accelerations over 30g. In addition, video recording of games and practices were used to further characterize the head impacts by type of position (skilled versus unskilled), field location of impact (open field versus line of scrimmage), type of hit (tackling, tackled, or hold/push), and whether the impact was a head-to-head impact or not. Results We recorded a total of 480 head impacts. An average of 21.8 head impacts occurred per practice, while 61.8 occurred per game. Players had an average of 3.7 head impacts per game and 1.5 impacts per practice (p < 0.001). The number of high magnitude head impacts (>80g) was 11. Two concussions were diagnosed over the course of the season. However, due to technical reasons the biomechanics of those hits resulting in concussions were not captured. Conclusion Despite smaller players and slower play when compared to high school, collegiate or professional players, those involved in youth football sustain a moderate number of head impacts per season with several high magnitude impacts. Our results suggest that players involved in open-field, tackling plays that have head-to-head contact sustain impacts with the highest linear accelerations. Our data supports previously published data that suggests changes to the rules of play during practice can reduce the burden of hits. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Viles-Gonzalez J.F.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Kar S.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Douglas P.,Duke University | Dukkipati S.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2012

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and clinical impact of incomplete left atrial appendage (LAA) sealing and consequent peri-device residual blood flow in patients undergoing percutaneous LAA closure with the Watchman device (Atritech, Inc., Plymouth, Minnesota). Background: During percutaneous LAA closure for stroke prophylaxis, the geometric variability of the LAA ostium may result in an incomplete seal of the LAA. On the one hand, this could enhance thrombus formation and embolization of thrombi around the device into the circulation; on the other hand, the relatively small size of these leaks may preclude clinically relevant embolizations. Methods: Patients randomly assigned to device implantation in the PROTECT AF (Percutaneous Closure of the Left Atrial Appendage Versus Warfarin Therapy for Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation) trial were analyzed. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed at 45 days, 6 months, and 12 months. Per the study protocol, patients discontinued warfarin therapy if the 45-day Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed either minimal or no peri-device flow (jet ≤5 mm width). The impact of peri-device flow severity, defined as minor, moderate, or major (<1 mm, 1 mm to 3 mm, >3 mm, respectively) on the composite primary efficacy endpoint (stroke, systemic embolism, and cardiovascular death) is expressed as hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Transesophageal echocardiography follow-up revealed that 32.0% of implanted patients had at least some degree of peri-device flow at 12 months. The HR of the primary efficacy endpoint per 1 mm larger per-device flow was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.62 to 1.14; p = 0.256). Compared to patients with no peri-device flow, the HRs were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.11 to 6.40), 0.83 (95% CI: 0.33 to 2.09), and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.11 to 2.09) for minor, moderate, and major peri-device flow, respectively (p = 0.798). Compared to patients with no peri-device flow who discontinued warfarin, the HR for patients with any peri-device flow and continuing warfarin was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.14 to 2.71; p = 0.530). Conclusions: These data indicate that residual peri-device flow into the LAA after percutaneous closure with the Watchman device was common, and is not associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism. This finding should be interpreted with caution as the low event rate decreases the confidence of this conclusion. © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

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