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Northfield, IL, United States

Harbison J.E.,Loyola University | Henry M.,North Shore Mosquito Abatement District | Xamplas C.,North Shore Mosquito Abatement District | Berry R.,North Shore Mosquito Abatement District
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2013

In the northern suburbs of Chicago, stormwater catch basins are the primary source of vector mosquitoes targeted by the local mosquito abatement district, and therefore effective catch basin larvicides are needed. From June to September 2011, Natular™ XRT was applied at label rate to a cluster of 20 catch basins and compared to a cluster of 20 untreated basins all within a small 0.21 km2 area of catch basins known historically to have high levels of mosquitoes. All monitored basins held immature stages of mosquitoes at least once; however, significantly fewer immatures overall were observed from Natular-treated basins than in untreated basins during 14 wk of monitoring. During the study a portion of Natular-treated catch basins was cleaned as part of scheduled maintenance, and this appeared to remove both the larvicide and any control effects. Better timing of catch basin maintenance events is suggested, particularly if, as the results of this study suggest, a single larvicide treatment may be effective for an entire season. © 2013 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc. Source


Harbison J.E.,Loyola University | Henry M.,North Shore Mosquito Abatement District | Xamplas C.,North Shore Mosquito Abatement District | Dugas L.R.,Loyola University
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2014

The North Shore Mosquito Abatement District applies extended release larvicides including methoprene-based Altosid® XR Extended Residual Briquets to approximately 40,000 catch basins in the southern half of the District's operational area at the beginning of each season. Treatments begin in May and typically again 9 to 10 wk later when larvicide efficacy appears to wane. In 2013 spinosad-based Natular™ XRT tablets were applied to basins, and a subset were monitored for larvae and pupae weekly with a standard dipper. When setting the threshold for retreatment as 12 juveniles per dip sample it was observed that basins required a second application 9 wk after the initial application, a time period similar to Altosid despite utilizing a different active ingredient. Average counts of weekly larval samples appeared to be positively associated with average numbers of Culex pipiens collected the following week in a gravid trap located among catch basins, highlighting the importance of basins as sources of these mosquitoes. © 2014 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc. Source


Harbison J.E.,Loyola University | Zazra D.,North Shore Mosquito Abatement District | Henry M.,North Shore Mosquito Abatement District | Xamplas C.,North Shore Mosquito Abatement District | Kafensztok R.,Loyola University
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2015

Because it is often logistically impossible to monitor all catch basins within an operational area, local mosquito control programs will preemptively treat catch basins with larvicides each season. However, these larvicides can, ostensibly, be considered water quality pollutants. To experimentally reduce the use of larvicides toward improving water quality, 30 basins within a small 0.7-km residential area were monitored weekly for the presence of larvae and pupae for 14 wk in the summer of 2013. Once a basin was found to reach a threshold of 12 mosquitoes per dip sample, it received a FourStar® Briquet (a 180-day briquet formulation of 6% Bacillus sphaericus and 1% B. thuringiensis israelensis). Each week a FourStar-treated basin surpassed this threshold, it was treated with an application of CocoBear™ oil (10% mineral oil). By the end of trials, all but one basin received a briquet and 13 required at least 4 treatments of CocoBear, suggesting that preemptive treatment is appropriate for the study area. Copyright © 2015 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc. Source


Harbison J.E.,Loyola University | Henry M.,North Shore Mosquito Abatement District | Xamplas C.,North Shore Mosquito Abatement District | Berry R.,North Shore Mosquito Abatement District | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2014

Stormwater catch basins are the primary source of mosquitoes targeted by the North Shore Mosquito Abatement District, in the northern suburbs of Chicago. Over a 17-wk period (June to September 2011), 3 clusters of catch basins located within a 0.7-km area were monitored weekly with dipper samples of immature mosquitoes. During the 2nd week of monitoring, Natular™ XRT tablets (6.25% spinosad) were applied to northernmost cluster and FourStar™ Briquets (6% Bacillus sphaericus, 1% Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis) were applied to the southernmost cluster; the remaining middle cluster was kept untreated. Following 15 wk of monitoring in 20 basins in each cluster, both Natular and FourStar reduced immature numbers in treated catch basins for 8 consecutive weeks. These results suggest, if effectively timed, a single application of either larvicide may last an entire season. © Copyright © 2014 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc. Source

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