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Rai K.R.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute | Rai K.R.,CLL Research and Treatment Program
Journal of Hematology and Oncology | Year: 2015

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common adult leukemia in the Western world, is primarily a disease of the elderly, with most patients ≥65 years of age and having at least one major comorbidity. Aggressive chemoimmunotherapy regimens recommended to achieve remission and improve survival in young, fit patients are often poorly tolerated in elderly and/or less physiologically fit ("unfit") patients, necessitating alternative treatment options. Although patient age, fitness, and comorbidities are key considerations in the selection of a treatment regimen, historically, clinical trials have been limited to young, fit patients by virtue of the ethical concerns associated with potential end organ toxic effects that could worsen comorbidities. However, the availability of new therapies promises a shift to a research paradigm that encompasses the identification of optimal treatments for elderly and unfit patients. Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy, which overall has improved response rates and survival in patients with CLL, has only recently been evaluated elderly and unfit patients. B cell-targeted agents such as the Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor idelalisib are the first of a new generation of oral agents for CLL. Available clinical data suggest that these therapies have the potential to address the unmet need in elderly and unfit patients with CLL and result in clinical remission, and not merely symptom palliation and improved quality of life, which, by themselves, are also a reasonable goal. © 2015 Rai. Source

Badulescu F.,Universitatea Of Medicina Si Farmacie | Badulescu A.,Titu Maiorescu University | Paul D.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute | Popescu C.F.,Spitalul Universitar Clinic Of Urgenta | Florescu C.,Universitatea Of Medicina Si Farmacie
OncoTargets and Therapy | Year: 2014

The main concern of long-term use of trastuzumab remains its association with potential cardiac side effects. Although these side effects are real, they are probably overemphasized. We report the case of a woman with metastatic breast cancer, who is currently in complete remission, and who received trastuzumab continuously for more than 9 years, without any significant cardiac toxicity. © 2014 Badulescu et al. Source

Li J.Y.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute
Journal of Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2016

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor. Microvascular proliferation is one of the characteristic pathologic features of GBM. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GBM. In this study, microvascular proliferation from GBM and normal brain blood vessels were laser microdissected and total RNA was isolated from these microvasculatures. The difference of mRNA expression profiles among GBM microvasculature, normal brain blood vessels and GBM tumor cells was evaluated by mitochondria and metabolism PCR gene arrays. It was found that the mRNA levels of ATP5A1 and ATP5B in GBM tumor cells as well as microvascular proliferation were significantly higher compared with normal brain blood vessels. Immunohistochemical stains with anti-ATP5A1 antibody or anti-ATP5B antibody were performed on tissue microarray, which demonstrated strongly positive expression of ATP5A1 and ATP5B in GBM tumor cells and GBM microvascular proliferation while normal blood vessels were negative. By analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas data sets for GBM and other cancers, genomic DNA alterations (mutation, amplification or deletion) were less likely the reason for the high expression of ATP5A1 and ATP5B in GBM. Our miRNA microarray data showed that miRNAs that target ATP5A1 or ATP5B were down-regulated, which might be the most likely reason for the high expression of ATP5A1 and ATP5B in GBM tumor cells and microvascular proliferation. These findings help us better understand the pathogenesis of GBM, and agents against ATP5A1 and/or ATP5B might effectively kill both tumor cells and microvascular proliferation in GBM. MiRNAs, such as Let-7f, miR-16, miR-23, miR-100 and miR-101, that target ATP5A1 or ATP5B, might be potential therapeutic agents for GBM. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Warr D.,University of Toronto | Gralla R.J.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute | Hesketh P.J.,St Elizabeths Medical Center | Jordan K.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Espersen B.T.,Aarhus University Hospital
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2011

Antiemetic drug development can follow the same logical path as antineoplastic drug development from appropriate preclinical models through Phase I, Phase II, and Phase III testing. However, due to the marked success of antiemetic therapy over the last 25 years, placebo antiemetic treatment against highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy is not acceptable. Promising antiemetic agents therefore rapidly reach Phase III testing, where they are substituted into or added to effective and accepted regimens. One challenge of antiemetic drug development is determining whether substitution is indeed acceptable or whether prior regimens must be maintained intact as a basis for further antiemetic drug development. An additional challenge is the classification of emetogenic level of new antineoplastic agents. Accurate reporting of emetogenicity of such antineoplastic agents in the absence of preventive antiemetic treatment may not be available. However, at the 2009 Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) Consensus Conference, an expert panel used best available data to establish rankings of emetogenicity. Oral chemotherapeutic agents are ranked separately from intravenous agents, recognizing intrinsic differences in emetogenicity as well as differing schedules of administration. Since oral chemotherapeutic agents are often administered in extended regimens, the distinction between acute and delayed emesis is less clear, and cumulative emesis must be considered. As control of vomiting has improved, attention has shifted to control of nausea, a related but distinct and equally important problem. Additional efforts will be necessary to understand mechanisms of nausea and to identify optimal remedies. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Andreopoulou E.,Yeshiva University | Vigoda I.S.,Yeshiva University | Valero V.,University of Houston | Hershman D.L.,Columbia University | And 10 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2013

Tipifarnib (T) is a farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) that enhances the antineoplastic effects of cytotoxic therapy in vitro, has activity in metastatic breast cancer, and enhances the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate to neoadjuvant doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide (AC) chemotherapy. We, therefore, performed a phase I-II trial of T plus neoadjuvant sequential weekly paclitaxel and 2-week AC chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer. Eligible patients with HER2-negative clinical stage IIB-IIIC breast cancer received 12 weekly doses of paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) followed by AC (60/600 mg/m 2 every 2 weeks and filgrastim), plus T (100 or 200 mg PO on days 1-3 of each P dose, and 200 mg PO on days 2-7 of each AC cycle). The trial was powered to detect an improvement in breast pCR rate from 15 to 35 % (α = 0.10, β = 0.10) in two strata, including ER and/or PR-positive, non-inflammatory (stratum A) and inflammatory carcinoma (stratum B). Of the 60 patients accrued, there were no dose-limiting toxicities among the first six patients treated at the first T dose level (100 mg BID; N = 3) or second T dose level (200 mg BID; N = 3) plus paclitaxel. Breast pCR occurred in 6/33 patients (18 %, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 7-36 %) and 1/22 patients (4 %, 95 % CI 0-8 %) in stratum B. Combination of the FTI T with weekly paclitaxel-AC is unlikely to be associated with a breast pCR rate of 35 % or higher in patients with locally advanced HER2/neu-negative inflammatory or non-inflammatory ER- and/or PR-positive breast carcinoma. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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