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Potters L.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute | Kapur A.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2015

Purpose: Although the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grading scales are utilized to assess adverse reactions to radiation therapy, few studies have investigated their reliability. In our previously reported image-based retrospective study, variability between caregivers (radiation oncologists, nurses) in assessing skin reactions in breast cancer radiation therapy using this scale was found to fall within a “moderate” range of concordance (Fleiss kappa score 0.43) per the Landis-Koch criteria. In this work, the potential impact of specific toxicity assessment terms documented by raters in our previous study on overall scale reliability was evaluated. Methods: In an institutional-review board approved retrospective study, clinical notes documented by 8 caregivers were interpreted to assess how discordances among grades of skin lesions following radiation therapy potentially related to the use of freehand terms to describe the adverse events. 25 terms commonly used in the commentary were identified and categorized into those that were and were not outlined in the CTCAE scale. The percentage incidence and free marginal kappa scores for each term was calculated. Results: The free marginal kappa scores for the terms stated in the CTCAE scale ranged from 0.333 to 0.565, suggesting a fairto- moderate level of concordance between grades given by caregivers who used such terms. Certain terms not included within the CTCAE scale such as “hyperpigmentation” exhibited a higher rate of incidence (80%) and concordance (free marginal kappa score of.512) than those included explicitly in the scale. Conclusion: The low kappa scores associated with terms in the CTCAE scale suggest variability in caregivers’ interpretation of assessment criteria. Revision of the wording of the scales may be needed to make definitions unambiguous and ensure a reliable grading scheme. The high frequency and kappa scores of terms including “hyperpigmentation” suggests revisions may also require inclusion of new clinical toxicity assessment criteria. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.


Kelley K.D.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute | Benninghoff D.L.,North Shore LIJ Health System | Stein J.S.,Feinstein Institute for Medical Research | Li J.Z.,North Shore LIJ Health System | And 4 more authors.
Radiation Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer-related death in North America. There is wide variation between patients who are medically inoperable and those managed surgically. The use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has narrowed the gap in survival rates between operative and non-operative management for those with early stage disease. This retrospective study reports outcomes for the treatment of peripheral non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) with SBRT from a single community practice. Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients (pts) with inoperable, untreated peripheral lung tumors were treated from 2010 through 2012 and included in this study. Stereotactic targeting was facilitated by either spine or lung-based image guidance, either with or without fiducial marker tracking with a frameless robotic radiosurgery system. Peripheral tumors received a median biological effective dose (BED) of 105.6 Gy10 or in terms of a median physical dose, 48 Gy delivered over 4 daily fractions. Survival was measured using the Kaplan-Meier method to determine rates of local control, progression of disease and overall survival. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to study the effects of tumor size, stage, histology, patient age, tumor location (lobe), tracking method, and BED on the survival distributions. Results: The median follow-up for this cohort was 24.5 months (range: 2.4-50.3) with an overall (OS) 3-year survival of 62.4 % (95 % CI: 74.3-47.3). The median progression-free survival was 28.5 months (95 % CI: 15.8 months to not reached). Local control (LC), defined as a lack of FDG uptake on PET/CT or the absence of tumor growth was achieved in 60 patients (90.9 %) at the time of first follow-up (median 3 months, range: 1-6). Local control at one year for the entire cohort was 81.8 % (95 % CI, 67.3-90.3). The one-year OS probability among those who achieved local control at first follow-up was 86.2 % (95 % CI, 74.3-92.9) but no patients who did not achieve LC at first follow-up survived one year. Of the 60 pts that achieved initial LC, 16 have died. The rates of local control, progression-free survival and overall survival were not statistically different for patients treated using a fiducial target tracking system versus non-invasive guidance. (p = 0.44, p = 0.97 and p = 0.66, respectively). No National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE-4) grade 3 or greater toxicity was observed. Conclusion: SBRT is an effective treatment for medically inoperable NSCLC patients with peripherally located tumors. This therapy appears to be well tolerated with low toxicity, and patient outcomes when using non-invasive tumor tracking systems are not inferior to traditional fiducial-based techniques. © 2015 Kelley et al.


Allen S.L.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice | Year: 2014

Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside analog indicated for treatment of relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. The drug is also increasingly used, outside of its FDA approved indication, for treatment of relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia in adults. It acts by inhibiting DNA synthesis, the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase and repair and activation of mitochondrial repair processes. We describe a case of a 48-year-old male with refractory acute myeloid leukemia with acute kidney injury associated with clofarabine treatment. We conducted a review of the literature and utilized the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System to identify spontaneous reporting of renal adverse events with this drug in 29 other cases. Since clofarabine inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, we postulate by extrapolation from the animal studies that collapsing glomerulopathy or severe tubular injury or a combination of both may be the mechanism of acute kidney injury observed with this agent. This would be consistent with the observed severe acute kidney injury and proteinuria in humans. © The Author(s) 2013.


Li J.Y.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute
Journal of Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2016

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor. Microvascular proliferation is one of the characteristic pathologic features of GBM. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GBM. In this study, microvascular proliferation from GBM and normal brain blood vessels were laser microdissected and total RNA was isolated from these microvasculatures. The difference of mRNA expression profiles among GBM microvasculature, normal brain blood vessels and GBM tumor cells was evaluated by mitochondria and metabolism PCR gene arrays. It was found that the mRNA levels of ATP5A1 and ATP5B in GBM tumor cells as well as microvascular proliferation were significantly higher compared with normal brain blood vessels. Immunohistochemical stains with anti-ATP5A1 antibody or anti-ATP5B antibody were performed on tissue microarray, which demonstrated strongly positive expression of ATP5A1 and ATP5B in GBM tumor cells and GBM microvascular proliferation while normal blood vessels were negative. By analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas data sets for GBM and other cancers, genomic DNA alterations (mutation, amplification or deletion) were less likely the reason for the high expression of ATP5A1 and ATP5B in GBM. Our miRNA microarray data showed that miRNAs that target ATP5A1 or ATP5B were down-regulated, which might be the most likely reason for the high expression of ATP5A1 and ATP5B in GBM tumor cells and microvascular proliferation. These findings help us better understand the pathogenesis of GBM, and agents against ATP5A1 and/or ATP5B might effectively kill both tumor cells and microvascular proliferation in GBM. MiRNAs, such as Let-7f, miR-16, miR-23, miR-100 and miR-101, that target ATP5A1 or ATP5B, might be potential therapeutic agents for GBM. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Warr D.,University of Toronto | Gralla R.J.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute | Hesketh P.J.,St Elizabeths Medical Center | Jordan K.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Espersen B.T.,Aarhus University Hospital
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2011

Antiemetic drug development can follow the same logical path as antineoplastic drug development from appropriate preclinical models through Phase I, Phase II, and Phase III testing. However, due to the marked success of antiemetic therapy over the last 25 years, placebo antiemetic treatment against highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy is not acceptable. Promising antiemetic agents therefore rapidly reach Phase III testing, where they are substituted into or added to effective and accepted regimens. One challenge of antiemetic drug development is determining whether substitution is indeed acceptable or whether prior regimens must be maintained intact as a basis for further antiemetic drug development. An additional challenge is the classification of emetogenic level of new antineoplastic agents. Accurate reporting of emetogenicity of such antineoplastic agents in the absence of preventive antiemetic treatment may not be available. However, at the 2009 Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) Consensus Conference, an expert panel used best available data to establish rankings of emetogenicity. Oral chemotherapeutic agents are ranked separately from intravenous agents, recognizing intrinsic differences in emetogenicity as well as differing schedules of administration. Since oral chemotherapeutic agents are often administered in extended regimens, the distinction between acute and delayed emesis is less clear, and cumulative emesis must be considered. As control of vomiting has improved, attention has shifted to control of nausea, a related but distinct and equally important problem. Additional efforts will be necessary to understand mechanisms of nausea and to identify optimal remedies. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners | Year: 2016

Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside analog indicated for treatment of relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. The drug is also increasingly used, outside of its FDA approved indication, for treatment of relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia in adults. It acts by inhibiting DNA synthesis, the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase and repair and activation of mitochondrial repair processes. We describe a case of a 48-year-old male with refractory acute myeloid leukemia with acute kidney injury associated with clofarabine treatment. We conducted a review of the literature and utilized the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System to identify spontaneous reporting of renal adverse events with this drug in 29 other cases. Since clofarabine inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, we postulate by extrapolation from the animal studies that collapsing glomerulopathy or severe tubular injury or a combination of both may be the mechanism of acute kidney injury observed with this agent. This would be consistent with the observed severe acute kidney injury and proteinuria in humans.


PubMed | Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute and North Shore LIJ Health System
Type: | Journal: Radiation oncology (London, England) | Year: 2015

Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer-related death in North America. There is wide variation between patients who are medically inoperable and those managed surgically. The use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has narrowed the gap in survival rates between operative and non-operative management for those with early stage disease. This retrospective study reports outcomes for the treatment of peripheral non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) with SBRT from a single community practice.Sixty-seven consecutive patients (pts) with inoperable, untreated peripheral lung tumors were treated from 2010 through 2012 and included in this study. Stereotactic targeting was facilitated by either spine or lung-based image guidance, either with or without fiducial marker tracking with a frameless robotic radiosurgery system. Peripheral tumors received a median biological effective dose (BED) of 105.6 Gy10 or in terms of a median physical dose, 48 Gy delivered over 4 daily fractions. Survival was measured using the Kaplan-Meier method to determine rates of local control, progression of disease and overall survival. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to study the effects of tumor size, stage, histology, patient age, tumor location (lobe), tracking method, and BED on the survival distributions.The median follow-up for this cohort was 24.5 months (range: 2.4-50.3) with an overall (OS) 3-year survival of 62.4 % (95 % CI: 74.3-47.3). The median progression-free survival was 28.5 months (95 % CI: 15.8 months to not reached). Local control (LC), defined as a lack of FDG uptake on PET/CT or the absence of tumor growth was achieved in 60 patients (90.9 %) at the time of first follow-up (median 3 months, range: 1-6). Local control at one year for the entire cohort was 81.8 % (95 % CI, 67.3-90.3). The one-year OS probability among those who achieved local control at first follow-up was 86.2 % (95 % CI, 74.3-92.9) but no patients who did not achieve LC at first follow-up survived one year. Of the 60 pts that achieved initial LC, 16 have died. The rates of local control, progression-free survival and overall survival were not statistically different for patients treated using a fiducial target tracking system versus non-invasive guidance. (p = 0.44, p = 0.97 and p = 0.66, respectively). No National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE-4) grade 3 or greater toxicity was observed.SBRT is an effective treatment for medically inoperable NSCLC patients with peripherally located tumors. This therapy appears to be well tolerated with low toxicity, and patient outcomes when using non-invasive tumor tracking systems are not inferior to traditional fiducial-based techniques.


Badulescu F.,Universitatea Of Medicina Si Farmacie | Badulescu A.,Titu Maiorescu University | Paul D.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute | Popescu C.F.,Spitalul Universitar Clinic Of Urgenta | Florescu C.,Universitatea Of Medicina Si Farmacie
OncoTargets and Therapy | Year: 2014

The main concern of long-term use of trastuzumab remains its association with potential cardiac side effects. Although these side effects are real, they are probably overemphasized. We report the case of a woman with metastatic breast cancer, who is currently in complete remission, and who received trastuzumab continuously for more than 9 years, without any significant cardiac toxicity. © 2014 Badulescu et al.


Potters L.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute | Raince J.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute | Chou H.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute | Kapur A.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Oncology | Year: 2013

Introduction: While much emphasis on safety in the radiation oncology clinic is placed on process, there remains considerable opportunity to increase safety, enhance outcomes, and avoid ad hoc care by instituting detailed treatment pathways. The purpose of this study was to review the process of developing evidence and consensus-based, outcomes-oriented treatment pathways that standardize treatment and patient management in a large multi-center radiation oncology practice. Further, we reviewed our compliance in incorporating these directives into our day-to-day clinical practice. Methods: Using the Institute of Medicine guideline for developing treatment pathways, 87 disease specific pathways were developed and incorporated into the electronic medical system in our multi-facility radiation oncology department. Compliance in incorporating treatment pathways was assessed by mining our electronic medical records (EMR) data from January 1, 2010 through February 2012 for patients with breast and prostate cancer. Results: This retrospective analysis of data from EMR found overall compliance to breast and prostate cancer treatment pathways to be 97 and 99%, respectively. The reason for non-compliance proved to be either a failure to complete the prescribed care based on grade II or III toxicity (n = 1 breast, 3 prostate) or patient elected discontinuance of care (n = 1 prostate) or the physician chose a higher dose for positive/close margins (n = 3 breast). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that consensus and evidence-based treatment pathways can be developed and implemented in a multi-center department of radiation oncology. And that for prostate and breast cancer there was a high degree of compliance using these directives. The development and implementation of these pathways serve as a key component of our safety program, most notably in our effort to facilitate consistent decision-making and reducing variation between physicians. © 2013 Potters, Raince, Chou, Kapur, Bulanowski, Stanzione and Lee.


Rai K.R.,North Shore LIJ Cancer Institute | Rai K.R.,CLL Research and Treatment Program
Journal of Hematology and Oncology | Year: 2015

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common adult leukemia in the Western world, is primarily a disease of the elderly, with most patients ≥65 years of age and having at least one major comorbidity. Aggressive chemoimmunotherapy regimens recommended to achieve remission and improve survival in young, fit patients are often poorly tolerated in elderly and/or less physiologically fit ("unfit") patients, necessitating alternative treatment options. Although patient age, fitness, and comorbidities are key considerations in the selection of a treatment regimen, historically, clinical trials have been limited to young, fit patients by virtue of the ethical concerns associated with potential end organ toxic effects that could worsen comorbidities. However, the availability of new therapies promises a shift to a research paradigm that encompasses the identification of optimal treatments for elderly and unfit patients. Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy, which overall has improved response rates and survival in patients with CLL, has only recently been evaluated elderly and unfit patients. B cell-targeted agents such as the Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor idelalisib are the first of a new generation of oral agents for CLL. Available clinical data suggest that these therapies have the potential to address the unmet need in elderly and unfit patients with CLL and result in clinical remission, and not merely symptom palliation and improved quality of life, which, by themselves, are also a reasonable goal. © 2015 Rai.

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