North Rhine Westphalia State Agency for Nature

Düsseldorf, Germany

North Rhine Westphalia State Agency for Nature

Düsseldorf, Germany

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Straub W.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Straub W.,North Rhine Westphalia State Agency for Nature | Beheng K.D.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Seifert A.,German Weather Service | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences | Year: 2010

Results of numerically investigated binary collisions of 32 drop pairs presented in Part I of this study are used to parameterize coalescence efficiencies and size distributions of breakup fragments of large raindrops. In contrast to the well-known results of Low and List, it is shown that coalescence efficiencies Ec can be described best by means of the Weber number We yielding Ec = exp(-1.15We). The fragment size distributions gained from our numerical investigations were parameterized by fitting normal, lognormal, and delta distributions and relating the parameters of the distribution functions to physical quantities relevant for the breakup event. Thus, this parameterization has formally a substantial similarity to the one of Low and List, although no reference is made to breakup modes such as filament, disk, and sheet. Additionally, mass conservation is guaranteed in the present approach. The parameterizations from Low and List, as well as the new parameterizations, are applied to compute a stationary size distribution (SSD) from solving the kinetic coagulation-breakup equation until a time-independent state is reached. Although with the parameterizations of Low and List, the SSD shows an often-reported three-peak structure, with the new parameterizations the second peak vanishes completely. © 2010 American Meteorological Society.


Holzer J.,Ruhr University Bochum | Goen T.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Just P.,Staatliches Veterinaruntersuchungsamt | Reupert R.,North Rhine Westphalia State Agency for Nature | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in fish samples and blood plasma of anglers in a cross-sectional study at Lake Möhne, Sauerland area, Germany. Human plasma and drinking water samples were analyzed by solid phase extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). PFCs in fish fillet were measured by ion pair extraction followed by HPLC and MS/MS. PFOS concentrations in 44 fish samples of Lake Möhne ranged between 4.5 and 150 ng/g. The highest median PFOS concentrations have been observed in perches (median: 96 ng/g) and eels (77 ng/g), followed by pikes (37 ng/g), whitefish (34 ng/g), and roaches (6.1 ng/g). In contrast, in a food surveillance program only 11% of fishes at retail sale contained PFOS at detectable concentrations. One hundred five anglers (99 men, 6 women; 14-88 years old; median 50.6 years) participated in the human biomonitoring study. PFOS concentrations in blood plasma ranged from 1.1 to 650 μg/L (PFOA: 2.1-170 μg/L; PFHxS: 0.4-17 μg/L; LOD: 0.1 μg/L). A distinct dose-dependent relationship between fish consumption and internal exposure to PFOS was observed. PFOS concentrations in blood plasma of anglers consuming fish 2-3 times per month were 7 times higher compared to those without any fish consumption from Lake Möhne. The study results strongly suggest that human internal exposure to PFC is distinctly increased by consumption of fish from PFC-contaminated sites. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Diehl K.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Wurzler S.,North Rhine Westphalia State Agency for Nature
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010

The effects of bacteria acting as immersion ice nuclei were investigated in numerical sensitivity studies and compared to the efforts of other ice nuclei such as mineral dust and soot particles. An adiabatic air parcel model was employed simulating convective situations with different initial aerosol particle distributions. The maximum fractions of active ice nuclei were based on field measurements of the proportioning of atmospheric aerosol particle types in continental and marine air masses. Recent field measurements of bacteria concentrations in cloud water and in snow samples were used. From the concentrations in bulk samples the concentration in mean sized cloud droplets was estimated. Immersion freezing was described based on laboratory measurements to constrain the freezing fraction versus temperature. The results indicated that the effects of diminutive amounts of bacteria on ice formation in convective clouds, while being significantly less than the effects of mineral dust particles, might be comparable to the expected effects of soot particles acting as ice nuclei. It can be predicted that bacterial ice nuclei would have to be enriched by at least 10 4 times reported concentrations in cloud water in order to equate to the impact of mineral dust ice nuclei present in 20-25% of all cloud droplets. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Fromme H.,Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority | Fromme H.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Schutze A.,Ruhr University Bochum | Lahrz T.,Berlin Brandenburg State Laboratory | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2016

Plasticizers have been widely used for decades as additives in diverse applications, including consumer and building products, toys, cables, and floorings. Due to toxicological concerns and restrictions of different dialkyl ortho-phthalates, other plasticizers have been increasingly used in recent years. Therefore, di-isononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH), di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), acetyl tri-. n-butyl citrate (ATBC), and trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) plasticizer levels in indoor air and dust samples from 63 daycare centers in Germany were measured. Moreover, the urine samples of 208 children who attend 27 of these facilities were analyzed for the presence of four DINCH metabolites.DINCH, DEHT, and DEHA were present in indoor air with median values of 108ng/m3, 20ng/m3, and 34ng/m3, respectively. Median values of 302mg/kg for DINCH, 49mg/kg for DEHA, 40mg/kg for DEHT, and 24mg/kg ATBC were found in dust. In the urine samples, the three secondary metabolites of DINCH were observed with median values (95th percentiles) of 1.7μg/l (10.0μg/l) for OH-MINCH, 1.5μg/l (8.0μg/l) for oxo-MINCH, and 1.1μg/l (6.1μg/l) for cx-MINCH. Overall, these metabolite levels are orders of magnitude lower than the current HBM I values set by the German Human Biomonitoring Commission.Using general exposure assumptions, the intake resulting from dust ingestion and inhalation is low for children. The total daily DINCH intake calculated from biomonitoring data was 0.5. μg/kg b.w. using median values and 9.8. μg/kg b.w. as the maximum value. At present, non-phthalate plasticizers, especially DINCH, can be found in considerable amounts in dust samples from daycare centers and as DINCH metabolites in the urine of children. In relation to previous studies, the concentrations of DINCH in dust and urine have an increasing time trend. Compared with tolerable daily intake values, the total daily intake of DINCH reached only 1% of its maximum value to date; however, due to its increased use, higher exposure of DINCH is expected in the future. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.


Schollnhammer T.,Ruhr University Bochum | Schollnhammer T.,North Rhine Westphalia State Agency for Nature | Hebbinghaus H.,North Rhine Westphalia State Agency for Nature | Wurzler S.,North Rhine Westphalia State Agency for Nature | Schulz T.,North Rhine Westphalia State Agency for Nature
Meteorologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2014

Road traffic is one of the main causes of poor air quality in European cities. Electric vehicles (EV) are often presented as climate friendly and as a solution for air quality problems in cities. The aim of this study is to investigate how much of this claim is true and to find out the necessary shares of electric vehicles of different types needed to solve air quality problems in street canyons. For example, the German government has formulated the ambitious goal of increasing the amount of electric vehicles in Germany to 1 million in 2020 and 6 million in 2030. Will this improve the air quality significantly? The focus of the present study is the air quality in street canyons, with a focus on PM10 and NO2 concentrations. We concentrate our investigation on road traffic, taking the fleet composition into account. A sensitivity study with a dispersion model was carried out for two street canyons in North Rhine-Westphalia, typical for moderately polluted street canyons in European cities. It is shown that the reduction potential is larger for NO2 than for PM10. The necessary share of electric vehicles to comply with the limit values lies at about 40 % for NO2 and 100 % for PM10, respectively. Thus, the share of electric vehicles needed to comply with the limit values is far above the goal of the German government. © 2014 The authors.


Wilhelm M.,Ruhr University Bochum | Bergmann S.,North Rhine Westphalia State Agency for Nature | Dieter H.H.,Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt of Germany
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2010

After detection of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in drinking water at concentrations up to 0.64μg/l in Arnsberg, Sauerland, Germany, the German Drinking Water Commission (TWK) assessed perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water and set for the first time worldwide in June 2006 a health-based guide value for safe lifelong exposure at 0.3μg/l (sum of PFOA and perfluorooctanesulfonate, PFOS). PFOA and PFOS can be effectively removed from drinking water by percolation over granular activated carbon. Additionally, recent EU-regulations require phasing out use of PFOS and ask to voluntarily reduce the one of PFOA. New and shorter-chained PFCs (C4-C7) and their mixtures are being introduced as replacements. We assume that some of these " new" compounds could be main contributors to total PFC levels in drinking water in future, especially since short-chained PFCs are difficult to remove from drinking water by common treatment techniques and also by filtration over activated carbon. The aims of the study were to summarize the data from the regularly measured PFC levels in drinking water and in the drinking water resources in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) for the sampling period 2008-2009, to give an overview on the general approach to assess PFC mixtures and to assess short-chained PFCs by using toxicokinetic instead of (sub)chronic data. No general increase of substitutes for PFOS and PFOA in wastewater and surface water was detected. Present findings of short-chained PFC in drinking waters in NRW were due to extended analysis and caused by other impacts. Additionally, several PFC contamination incidents in drinking water resources (groundwater and rivers) have been reported in NRW. The new approach to assess short-chained PFCs is based on a ranking of their estimated half-lives for elimination from the human body. Accordingly, we consider the following provisional health-related indication values (HRIV) as safe in drinking water for lifelong exposure: perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) 7μg/l, perfluoropentanoate (PFPA) 3μg/l, perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) 1μg/l, perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) 0.3μg/l, perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) 3μg/l, perfluoropentanesulfonate (PFPS) 1μg/l, perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) 0.3μg/l and perfluoroheptanesulfonate (PFHpS) 0.3μg/l. For all PFCs the long-term lowest maximal quality goal (general precautionary value, PVg) in drinking water is set to -0.1μg/l. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.


Brede E.,Ruhr University Bochum | Wilhelm M.,Ruhr University Bochum | Goen T.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Muller J.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2010

Residents in Arnsberg, Germany, had been supplied by drinking water contaminated with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Biomonitoring data from 2006 evidenced that plasma PFOA concentrations of residents from Arnsberg were 4.5-8.3 times higher than those in reference groups. The introduction of charcoal filtration in July 2006 distinctly reduced PFOA concentrations in drinking water. Our one-year follow-up study showed a 10-20% reduction of PFOA plasma levels in residents from Arnsberg. Here we report the first results of the two-year follow-up study Arnsberg 2008. Additionally, the results of the two-year follow-up examination of the reference group are included. Paired plasma samples of 138 study participants (45 children, 46 mothers and 47 men) collected in 2006 and 2008 were considered in the statistical analyses. Within the two years plasma concentrations of PFOA, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) decreased in residents from Arnsberg and in control groups. The geometric means of PFOA plasma levels declined by 39% (children and mothers) and 26% (men) in Arnsberg and by 13-15% in the corresponding subgroups from the reference areas. For the population from Arnsberg a geometric mean plasma PFOA half-life of 3.26 years (range 1.03-14.67 years) was calculated. Our results confirm an ongoing reduction of the PFOA load in residents from Arnsberg. The decline of PFC levels in plasma of participants from the reference areas reflects the general decrease of human PFC exposure during the very recent years. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.


PubMed | Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Berlin Brandenburg State Laboratory, RWTH Aachen and North Rhine Westphalia State Agency for Nature
Type: | Journal: International journal of hygiene and environmental health | Year: 2016

For decades, plasticizers have been produced in high quantities to improve the flexibility and durability of products. One possible replacement product is alkylsulfonic acid phenylesters (ASEs), marketed as Mesamoll


PubMed | Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Ruhr University Bochum, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Berlin Brandenburg State Laboratory and North Rhine Westphalia State Agency for Nature
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of hygiene and environmental health | Year: 2015

Plasticizers have been widely used for decades as additives in diverse applications, including consumer and building products, toys, cables, and floorings. Due to toxicological concerns and restrictions of different dialkyl ortho-phthalates, other plasticizers have been increasingly used in recent years. Therefore, di-isononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH), di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC), and trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) plasticizer levels in indoor air and dust samples from 63 daycare centers in Germany were measured. Moreover, the urine samples of 208 children who attend 27 of these facilities were analyzed for the presence of four DINCH metabolites. DINCH, DEHT, and DEHA were present in indoor air with median values of 108 ng/m(3), 20 ng/m(3), and 34 ng/m(3), respectively. Median values of 302 mg/kg for DINCH, 49 mg/kg for DEHA, 40 mg/kg for DEHT, and 24 mg/kg ATBC were found in dust. In the urine samples, the three secondary metabolites of DINCH were observed with median values (95th percentiles) of 1.7 g/l (10.0 g/l) for OH-MINCH, 1.5 g/l (8.0 g/l) for oxo-MINCH, and 1.1 g/l (6.1 g/l) for cx-MINCH. Overall, these metabolite levels are orders of magnitude lower than the current HBM I values set by the German Human Biomonitoring Commission. Using general exposure assumptions, the intake resulting from dust ingestion and inhalation is low for children. The total daily DINCH intake calculated from biomonitoring data was 0.5 g/kg b.w. using median values and 9.8 g/kg b.w. as the maximum value. At present, non-phthalate plasticizers, especially DINCH, can be found in considerable amounts in dust samples from daycare centers and as DINCH metabolites in the urine of children. In relation to previous studies, the concentrations of DINCH in dust and urine have an increasing time trend. Compared with tolerable daily intake values, the total daily intake of DINCH reached only 1% of its maximum value to date; however, due to its increased use, higher exposure of DINCH is expected in the future.


PubMed | Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Eurofins and North Rhine Westphalia State Agency for Nature
Type: | Journal: International journal of hygiene and environmental health | Year: 2016

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a substance group of 209 theoretically possible compounds. The human body burden of PCBs is commonly calculated based on so-called indicator congeners such as PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180, which are analyzed in human blood. The German Human Biomonitoring (HBM) Commission assumes that the sum of these indicator congeners multiplied by a factor of 2 represents the total PCB burden. This norm is based on data obtained from exposure studies after dietary intake. Data from indoor air shows a different congener pattern, which might lead to a relatively higher intake of lower chlorinated PCBs by inhalation. In two independent studies with adult participants from two regions in Germany, we measured all 209 PCB congeners in 44 whole blood and 42 plasma samples. Participants from the whole blood study group had additional exposure to PCBs via indoor air. With our analytical method, 141 individual PCB congeners, 27 coeluted pairs of PCB congeners and 2 records of 3 and 4 coeluted PCBs could be determined. Thus, 172 analysis results were reported per sample. In the whole blood samples, 50 congeners showed values below the limit of quantification (LOQ), whereas 94 congeners could not be detected in any of plasma samples. Total PCB concentrations ( 209 PCB congeners, incl. LOQ) in the whole blood samples ranged from 99 to 2152ng PCB/g lipid (Median: 454ng/g lipid; 95th Percentile: 1404ng/g lipid). The sum of all 209 measured PCB (incl. LOQ) in plasma samples showed levels between 52 and 933ng PCB/g lipid (Median: 226ng/g lipid; 95th Percentile: 642ng/g lipid). Our results show that the burden of PCBs on the human body is caused mainly by the three highly chlorinated indicator congeners PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180. In median approximately 50% of the total PCB content in human whole blood or plasma samples can be attributed to these congeners. Total PCB, calculated by multiplying the sum of the three indicator congeners by 2, showed a strong and highly significant correlation to the sum of all 209 measured congeners for each sample. A slightly stronger correlation in the whole blood samples could be achieved by choosing six indicator congeners, including the lower chlorinated congeners (PCB 28, 52 and 101) into the calculation. Although this difference is very small, it must be considered that higher PCB levels in indoor air than those measured in the present study might be associated with a higher burden of indoor-air-related congeners in exposed individuals. For precautionary reasons, it could therefore be recommended that the assessment of individuals exposed to PCB via indoor air should be carried out based on the sum of the 6 indicator congeners PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 101, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180 multiplied by a factor of 2.

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