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Dong Z.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Dong Z.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Dong Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yan Y.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

Payment for ecosystem services (PES) has attracted considerable attention as an economic incentive for promoting natural resource management recently. As emphasis has been placed on using the incentive-based mechanism by the central government, rapid progress on PES research and practice has been achieved. However PES still faces many difficulties. A key issue is the lack of a fully-fledged theory and method to clearly define the design scope, accounting and feasibility of PES criteria. An improved watershed criteria model was developed in light of research on PES practices in China, investigations on the water source area for the Middle Route Project of South-to-North Water Diversion and ecosystem services outflows theory. The basic principle of assessment is the direct and opportunity cost for ecological conservation and environmental protection in the water source area deduct nationally-financed PES and internal effect. Then the scope and the criteria methods were determined, and internal effect was put forward to define benefits brought from water source area. Finally, Shiyan City, which is the main water source area for the Project of Water Diversion, was analyzed by this model and its payment was calculated. The results showed that: (1) during 2003-2050, the total direct cost and opportunity cost would reach up to 262.70 billion and 256.33 billion Chinese Yuan (CNY, 2000 constant prices), i.e., 50.61% and 49.38% of total cost, respectively; (2) Shiyan City would gain 0.23, 0.06 and 0.03 CNY/m 3 in 2014-2020, 2021-2030, and 2031-2050, respectively. © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Yan Y.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Yan Y.,North Research Center for Rural Wastewater Treatment Technology | Wang Y.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Wang Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology | Year: 2014

Water quality is one of the most serious problems of environment and national sustainable development strategy now facing China. After hard work over the last several decades, urban-sewage treatment in China is now relatively well developed. It now affords mainly higher levels of sewage collection and treatment, as well as pollution-load control. The characteristic rapid urbanization now occurring in China is still increasing and developing dramatically, and involves large numbers of people. However, in towns, sewage treatment infrastructure is inadequate, and a high percentage of the sewage generated there is not effectively collected and treated. The sewage and pollution load of such towns have become the most important reason for environmental water problems in China. To understand the priorities of sewage treatment in such towns, and their spatial distribution in China, we conducted two nationwide investigations of water use and sewage discharge in towns. Based on the integrated analytic hierarchy process (AHP), assessment indices and a framework of town-sewage treatment priorities in China were constructed. Then, we assessed and analyzed the priorities of towns regarding three aspects of sewage treatment: environmental stress, economic capability, and infrastructure. The results showed that the southeast coastal areas and north China had higher demand for sewage treatment than other areas. The demand in eastern and western areas had obvious differences in spatial distribution, but had nearly no differences within those areas. The towns having the greatest demand for high-priority sewage treatment were concentrated in regions with high economic capability and intense water resource utilization. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Yan Y.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Yan Y.,North Research Center for Rural Wastewater Treatment Technology | Zhang Y.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Zhang Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 12 more authors.
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology | Year: 2011

More than 95% of towns in China have no sewage treatment facilities at present. Increasing domestic sewage discharge from towns has greatly threatened not only the local environment and drinking water safety, but also the national water environment and sustainable development. However, there is no systemic investigation and data on sewage discharge and pollution loads from towns, which is necessary in order to plan and arrange sewage treatment in towns at the national scale. In order to estimate sewage discharge and pollution loads and to clarify its spatial distribution, we conducted two nationwide investigations of water use and sewage discharge in towns. Combined with investigation data from the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China (MOHURD), domestic sewage discharge and pollution loads were calculated and spatial distribution and influent factors were analysed. The results showed that (1) in 2008, the total amount of domestic sewage discharge from towns of 398 prefectural-level cities was 2.64 billion tons, which had a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 3.99 million tons, total nitrogen (TN) of 623,000 tons and total phosphorus (TP) of 56,000 tons; (2) the national average intensity of sewage discharge was 76,100ton/km2/year, and the average intensities of COD, TN and TP emission were 74.06ton/km2/year, 14.81ton/km 2/year and 1.04ton/km2/year, respectively. In South and East China, including Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Fujian, Guangxi and Sichuan Provinces, the contaminant emission intensity was much higher and was also relatively high in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and in northeast China. These regions will be the focus of town-level domestic sewage treatment efforts. The results provide scientific support for rational planning of sewage treatment in towns in China. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

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