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Dicosimo J.,North Pacific Fishery Management Council | Methot R.D.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Ormseth O.A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
ICES Journal of Marine Science

In total, 41 fish stocks in US ocean waters continue to be fished at unsustainable levels, and 46 fish stocks are overfished. In 2006, the US Congress required the implementation of annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures by 2010 to prevent overfishing, and by 2011 to recover overfished stocks. These requirements were modelled on the existing management system for Northeast Pacific groundfish, where more than 20 fish stocks and assemblages have been managed sustainably for 30 years. Science-based overfishing levels and acceptable biological catches (ABCs) have been implemented for each stock or assemblage, with buffers between the two to avoid overfishing. Total allowable catches are set at or below the acceptable biological catch. Suballocations of quotas by season, area, and gear type, along with in-season fishery closures based on extensive observer coverage and vessel monitoring, ensure that quotas are not exceeded. To comply with ACL requirements, the North Pacific Fishery Management Council has defined ABC as an ACL. We demonstrate the effectiveness of ACLs for successful management of Northeast Pacific groundfish, suggesting that their use in other US fisheries might reduce the risk of overfishing and enhance the recovery of overfished stocks. © United States Government, Department of Commerce 2010. Source

Kruse G.H.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Zheng J.,Alaska Department of Fish and Game | Stram D.L.,North Pacific Fishery Management Council
ICES Journal of Marine Science

After peak landings in 1980, the red king crab fishery in Bristol Bay (Alaska) was closed in 1983 because of stock collapse. In the following decade, small commercial harvests and additional fishery closures (1994 and 1995) associated with depressed stock status prompted a reappraisal of the management strategy. A length-based population model was developed, which provided an improved stock assessment for setting annual catch quota. A management strategy evaluation revealed that a harvest strategy, which included a stair-stepped harvest rate of 10-15 of mature males and a threshold for effective spawning biomass below which no fishing is permitted, provides for relatively high long-term yield, greater stability in yield, fewer fishery closures, and higher effective spawning biomass. This strategy was adopted in 1996, in addition to crab bycatch caps and closed areas, to protect sensitive crab habitats implemented in the management of the groundfish trawl fishery. Since then, abundance of legal-sized males increased by 58, that of mature males doubled, and mature female abundance and effective spawning biomass tripled through 2008. The stock has been considered rebuilt since 2003. Subsequently, a sharp reduction in fishing capacity improved profitability of the fishery, after implementation of an individual fishing quota programme in 2005. © 2010 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved. Source

Cunningham S.,North Pacific Fishery Management Council | Bennear L.S.,Duke University | Smith M.D.,Duke University
Land Economics

Regional councils manage U.S. fisheries. Fishermen can participate in fisheries managed by multiple councils, and effort controls in one region could lead to effort leakage into another. Theoretical modeling demonstrates that positive, negative, and no leakage are possible. Using difference-in-differences, we test for leakage across regional boundaries for a catch share program in New England and find evidence that the New England groundfish sector program caused spillover into adjacent Mid-Atlantic fisheries. Aggregate Mid-Atlantic harvest volume increased among sector members after the policy change. We find leakage in individual fisheries with similar gear and high market substitutability with sector species. © 2016 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Source

Reuter R.F.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Conners M.E.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Dicosimo J.,North Pacific Fishery Management Council | Gaichas S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 2 more authors.
Fisheries Management and Ecology

Abstract: The 2006 reauthorisation of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act requires annual catch limits for all target and non-target species within federally managed fisheries in the United States. In Alaska, both target and non-target species in the Alaska groundfish fisheries have been managed using catch limits since the early 1990s. Non-target species that are caught incidentally in a fishery require monitoring to ensure that the population is not negatively impacted by commercial fishing. Resource assessment scientists have been challenged with obtaining sufficient data to recommend an acceptable catch level for management of these species. This paper reviews three case studies where a catch limit is determined for non-target species when certain data are limited: (1) varying levels of biomass and catch data for all species within a species group or complex; (2) adequate catch data but no biomass data; (3) emerging target fishery of data-poor species, plus an example of how a complex of ecosystem component species is managed. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Stram D.L.,North Pacific Fishery Management Council | Ianelli J.N.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
ICES Journal of Marine Science

The walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) fishery in the Bering Sea is one of the largest fisheries in the world. The North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC) provides management advice for this fishery, including the development of measures to minimize salmon bycatch to the extent practicable, one of the stated objectives of the US Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act National Standard Guidelines. Salmon have a unique cultural and nutritional importance in the State of Alaska and are the subject of fully allocated mixed commercial, recreational, and subsistence fisheries. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stocks in Alaska have been declining for the last decade, and all sources of mortality are being considered to help in rebuilding stocks. Given the extensive scientific National Marine Fisheries Service observer data collection programme, the NPFMC has developed bycatch management measures that place limits by fishery sector on the allowable catch of Chinook salmon. Part of this programme includes industry-proposed incentive programmes designed to encourage lower bycatch. Evaluating the efficacy of the new measures poses a number of challenges, particularly in light of changing ocean conditions (perhaps affecting the degree of overlap between pollock and salmon). In this study, data on pre- and post-programme implementation were evaluated to determine if the programme is meeting stated goals and objectives or if modifications are needed. These evaluations included consideration of fleet-level bycatch numbers and rates, seasonality of bycatch by sector, and individual vessel bycatch rates. Results suggest that revised management regulations appear to have resulted in reduced bycatch of salmon overall. Also, lower bycatch rates seem to reflect changing behaviour in response to new management measures. However, the extent to which the programme is effective at the vessel level remains difficult to ascertain without explicit vessel-specific benchmarks developed for evaluating programme efficacy. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2014. Source

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