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Venyo A.K.-G.,North Manchester General Hospital
Advances in Urology | Year: 2014

Background. Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma was added to the WHO's classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on nested variant of urothelial carcinoma. Results. About 200 cases of the tumour have been reported so far and it has the ensuing morphological features: large numbers of small confluent irregular nests of bland-appearing, closely packed, haphazardly arranged, and poorly defined urothelial cells infiltrating the lamina propria and the muscularis propria. The tumour has a bland histomorphologic appearance, has an aggressive biological behaviour, and has at times been misdiagnosed as a benign lesion which had led to a significant delay in the establishment of the correct diagnosis and contributing to the advanced stage of the disease. Immunohistochemically, the tumour shares some characteristic features with high-risk conventional urothelial carcinomas such as high proliferation index and loss of p27 expression. However, p53, bcl-2, or EGF-r immunoreactivity is not frequently seen. The tumour must be differentiated from a number of proliferative lesions of the urothelium. Conclusions. Correct and early diagnosis of this tumour is essential to provide early curative treatment to avoid diagnosis at an advanced stage. A multicentre trial is required to identify treatment options that would improve the outcome of this tumour. © 2014 Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo.


Many factors contribute to patellofemoral instability. Surgical intervention may include additional procedures to reconstruct the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). This review attempts to ascertain from the literature whether there is a threshold for when an isolated MPFL reconstruction will suffice and when an additional procedure would be required. © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.


Venyo A.K.-G.,North Manchester General Hospital
Advances in Urology | Year: 2013

Context. Primary renal carcinoid tumours are rare. Their pathogenesis is unknown and the clinical presentation is similar to other renal tumours thus posing diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. Objectives. To review the literature for case reports of primary renal carcinoids. Methods. Literature was extensively searched for case reports for primary renal carcinoids. Reports of metastatic carcinoids to the kidneys were excluded. Results. Approximately less than 90 cases of primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney have been reported in the literature. A total of 29 cases of primary renal carcinoids were reviewed. The mean age of presentation was 48 years (range 29-75) with both right kidney (48.3%) and left kidney (44.8%) being equally affected. 28.6% of the cases reviewed were diagnosed as an incidental finding. The mean followup time was 20 months with 73.1% of patients without evidence of disease after surgical treatment (radical or partial nephrectomy). Primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney are often well differentiated tumours. They are often misdiagnosed because of their rarity and similar presentation with other renal tumours. Conclusions. Primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney are rare tumours with an indolent course with frequent metastasis. Metastatic work up and followup is required in their management. © 2013 Ayodeji O. Omiyale and Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo.


OBJECTIVES: Nutritional deficiencies and immune dysfunction in cancer patients may contribute to postoperative septic morbidity. This trial compared the effects of perioperative enteral immunonutrition (EIN) versus standard enteral nutrition (SEN) on systemic and mucosal immunity in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary cancer.METHODS: Thirty-seven patients were randomized (EIN, n = 17; SEN, n = 20) to receive feed for 14 days preoperatively and 7 days postoperatively. Mediators of systemic immunity (interleukin 1α, tumor necrosis factor α, lymphocytes subsets, and complement components) and of mucosal immunity in duodenal biopsies, nutritional markers and parameters were evaluated.RESULTS: The groups were comparable for demographics, the concentrations of mediators of systemic and mucosal immunity at time of recruitment, and for the duration and amount of feed received. Preoperative EIN rather than SEN was associated with significant reductions in plasma tumor necrosis factor α and total hemolytic complement. Enteral immunonutrition–fed patients had significantly higher total lymphocyte count on the third postoperative day and significantly greater rise in CD4/CD8 ratio from day 3 to day 7 postoperatively compared with SEN-fed patients.CONCLUSIONS: The perioperative administration of EIN rather than SEN is associated with a favorable modulation of the inflammatory response and enhancement of systemic immunity in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary cancer. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Venyo A.K.-G.,North Manchester General Hospital
Advances in Urology | Year: 2014

Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB) is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18)(q21: 21). Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment. © 2014 Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo.

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