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Tolonen K.T.,North Karelia Regional Environment Center | Tolonen K.T.,University of Jyvaskyla | Hamalainen H.,University of Jyvaskyla
Fundamental and Applied Limnology | Year: 2010

We explored environmental variables structuring littoral macroinvertebrate communities in a large lake basin along a gradient of nutrient enrichment. Furthermore, we evaluated sensitivity and cost-efficiency of different sampling schemes (i.e. combinations of three habitat types and a number of standard sampling methods) to detect changes in macroinvertebrate communities along this anthropogenic disturbance gradient. Partial canonical ordination analysis showed that habitat characteristics accounted for a major part (56 % uniquely) of the explained variation in the species composition of invertebrate communities. When different mesohabitats were examined separately, assemblage variation of stony bottoms was most strongly associated with human-induced changes in water chemistry (51 % of the explained variation). In sandy and vegetated habitats, shore morphometry and habitat characteristics were more influential factors. The most time-consuming phases of sample processing were sorting and identification, whilst the time-costs of field sampling were relatively low. The duration of sample treatment was positively correlated with the numbers of individuals counted and taxa identified. Additionally, processing time was associated with habitat type, samples from stony bottoms being the least laborious. Kick-net sampling on stony shores was the most cost-efficient sampling scheme with low costs and highest sensitivity to detect anthropogenic impacts. © 2010 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany. Source

Rantakari M.,Finnish Environment Institute | Mattsson T.,Finnish Environment Institute | Kortelainen P.,Finnish Environment Institute | Piirainen S.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

Seasonal and between stream variation (catchment dependent variation) in losses of organic and inorganic carbon via downstream transport and outgassing of CO2 into the atmosphere were studied in 11 small boreal catchments situated in close proximity to each other. Of these catchments four were undrained peatland rich catchments, four drained peatland rich catchments and three managed mineral soil-dominated catchments. Downstream export of total inorganic carbon (TIC) varied between 870 and 1400 kg km-2 a-1 and was rather consistent between the catchments, except in the case of the mineral soil-dominated catchment Kangaslampi, where export was only 420 kg km-2 a-1. The export of total organic carbon (TOC) varied between 2300 and 14,800 kg km-2 a-1 and was highest in peatland rich catchments. Peatland drainage decreased TIC and TOC concentrations in the long term, but did not affect lateral carbon export due to increased runoff from the catchments. Partial pressure of CO2 in streams was the highest in undrained peatland rich catchments, but the outgassing of CO2 into the atmosphere was also high from drained peatlands due to the higher discharge rate and long ditch networks. In mineral soil-dominated catchments both downstream export of carbon and emission into the atmosphere were low. TOC exports were compared in two climatically different years (2003 and 2007). The results indicate that climate change might alter the timing of the TOC export from the catchments, the importance of the spring ice melt diminishing and both snow cover and snow free period export increasing. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. Source

Puustinen M.,Finnish Environment Institute | Turtola E.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Kukkonen M.,North Karelia Regional Environment Center | Koskiaho J.,Finnish Environment Institute | And 3 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2010

The empirically based VIHMA model is intended for evaluation of agricultural loading and mitigation measures at the catchment scale. As a starting point for the model construction, results of relevant Finnish long-term field experiments were collected as the database of the model. From the database, specific loading values for different cultivation and tillage methods were calculated using the values of respective tillage methods and conditions (slope, soil texture, hydrological year type) and - in cases of missing empirical data - interpolation and expert judgment. Moreover, based on the data collected in studies carried out at Finnish constructed wetlands (CWs) and at experimental fields with buffer zones (BZs), the model is able to evaluate the environmental benefits achieved by these water protection measures at the catchment scale. The model points out the origin of loading as well as the needs of targeting the protective measures and their load-reducing effects. The use of VIHMA is bound to the distribution of actual information of field cultivation in the target area. Hence, calculations based on changed tillage practices can be assessed only within the limits determined by the lines of production in local farms. On the other hand, the need to decrease the loading is determined by the target state of the recipient body of water. By changing the input data, the potential change in loading, e.g. by increasing the number of BZs or CWs, can be simulated by VIHMA. Influences of different hydrological years with different flow regimes due to different meteorological conditions are taken into account by the choice of the respective empirically-based specific loadings in the model data. The results calculated by VIHMA were found to be well in line with the reported results from long-term catchment monitoring. The model was able to reliably calculate the influences of mitigation measures in large scale in spite of high variation due to different hydrological years. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: REGIONS-2009-1 | Award Amount: 2.29M | Year: 2010

RoK-FOR aims to create a region of knowledge in the forestry sector in Europe, and will significantly contribute to forest sector supporting sustainable use of natural resources, renewable energy, sustainable construction materials and biobased products, without jeopardizing the environment. RoK-FOR is a Coordination Action of five regional research-driven clusters from six European countries: Germany (Baden-Wrttemberg); Finland (North Karelia); Spain (Catalonia), and the cross-border clusters from Croatia-Serbia and France-Spain (Aquitaine-Basque). These regional research-driven clusters collectively form a European level meta-cluster that will be working together to increase the coherence and address the needs of the three Lead Market Initiatives (renewable energy, sustainable construction, and bio-based products) under the umbrella of the sustainable forest management in an innovative and competitive manner. The RoK-FOR work programme is divided into seven interconnected and state of the art work packages which will be instrumental in fulfilling the objectives of the project in a three year period. The project will analyse the regional R&D needs, capacities and policies of the participating clusters, and will integrate them in regional research agendas and a Joint Action Plan to be developed in the course of the project. RoK-FOR will also take measures towards implementing the Joint Action Plan, including business plans and R&D design. RoK-FOR will address the European need of capacity building of the clustersin contributing to regional strategies in the central theme of the project, will support integration of SMEs in RTD, and has a specific Work Package for mentoring the cross-border region of Croatia-Serbia.

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