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Shillong, India

North Eastern Hill University is a Central University established on 19 July 1973 by an Act of the Indian Parliament. The university is in the suburb of Shillong, the state capital of Meghalaya, India. The university has two campuses: Shillong and Tura in Meghalaya. NEHU Tura Campus functions under a pro-vice chancellor.It is the University Grants Commission's University with Potential for Excellence . It was established as a regional university for the states of northeast India, including Meghalaya, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram, and had given birth to Nagaland University in 1994 and Mizoram University in 2001. The university at the national level ranks at 16 according to the India Today AC-Nielsen Best Universities Survey of 2012, and at 11 at the TOP Central Universities. It also has a world ranking at 1821 by the University Raking by Academic Performance. Wikipedia.

Sarma H.,North - Eastern Hill University
Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Metal hyperaccumulation is a characteristic present in over 500 plant species and approximately in 0.2% of all angiosperms. Hyper accumulators are model plants for phytoremediation as they are tolerant to heavy metals. Metals hyperaccumulation and tolerance are genetically inherited traits. Plants possess a range of potential cellular mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals and thus tolerance to metal stress. Recent discovery have given first insights into the molecular basis of metal hyperaccumulation and metal hypertolerance in some plants. However, the ecological and biological significance of hyperaccumulation is not clear yet. The recent progress of molecular techniques has helped to improve the performance of phytoremediation technology as well as plant adaptation to extreme metallic environments. The knowledge of metal hyperaccumulation physiology has recently developed as a result of the advancement of molecular biology. Molecular technique help to understand the gene regulations system and plant metal homeostasis. This study reviews the recent advances of phytoremediation technology using hyperaccumulator plants addressing both potential and limitations, physiological and molecular aspects and provides a broad overview of most important genes which have been correlated to metals hyperaccumulation and tolerance, evidence of the effect of heavy metal on biomass productions, plant biochemical, antioxidant defence system and discusses the prospects of transgenic plants in phytoremediation of heavy metals. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) catalyzed by iron, Fenton (Fe 2+/H 2O 2) and photo- Fenton (Fe 2+/H 2O 2/UV) processes have been shown to have great potential in the treatment of various hazardous chemicals like dyes, agrochemicals, drugs etc. More than six decades after the discovery of Fenton's reagent, it has gained considerable importance in such a context. The present work reports details of operational parameters such as the pH, the concentrations of the target molecule, iron salt, hydrogen peroxide etc. for the working of Fenton and photo-Fenton processes efficiently. This review emphasizes two relatively neglected areas of research concerning Fenton and photo-Fenton processes, i.e. the influence of aromatic & aliphatic hydrocarbons and various inorganic cations (Cu +, CO 2-, Ni 2+, Mn 2+ etc.) and anions (e.g. ClO 4 -, SO 4 2-, Cl -, PO 4 3-, NO 3, CO 3 2-, etc.), gemrally found in industrial wastewaters on the two processes. A general mechanism of degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon systems including azo dyes has been outlined. It is concluded that hydroxyl radical mediated degradation of all aromatic hydrocarbons follows two distinct paths yielding aliphatic carboxylic acids: one through the cleavage ofperoxyl radical and the other through the cleavage of quinone. Complete mineralization is achieved when the acids on further oxidation produce CO 2 and H 2O.

Chatterjee A.,North - Eastern Hill University
Nutrients | Year: 2013

The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant intracellular nonprotein thiol, and it is involved in many cellular functions including redox-homeostatic buffering. Cellular radiosensitivity has been shown to be inversely correlated to the endogenous level of GSH. On the other hand, controversy is raised with respect to its role in the field of radioprotection since GSH failed to provide consistent protection in several cases. Reports have been published that DNA repair in cells has a dependence on GSH. Subsequently, S-glutathionylation (forming mixed disulfides with the protein-sulfhydryl groups), a potent mechanism for posttranslational regulation of a variety of regulatory and metabolic proteins when there is a change in the celluar redox status (lower GSH/GSSG ratio), has received increased attention over the last decade. GSH, as a single agent, is found to affect DNA damage and repair, redox regulation and multiple cell signaling pathways. Thus, seemingly, GSH does not only act as a radioprotector against DNA damage induced by X-rays through glutathionylation, it may also act as a modulator of the DNA-repair activity. Judging by the number of publications within the last six years, it is obvious that the field of protein glutathionylation impinges on many aspects of biology, from regulation of protein function to roles of cell cycle and apoptosis. Aberrant protein glutathionylation and its association with cancer and other diseases is an area of increasing interest. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Khatua S.,University of Siegen | Khatua S.,North - Eastern Hill University | Schmittel M.,University of Siegen
Organic Letters | Year: 2013

A bis-heteroleptic Ru(II) complex (1) is presented that acts as a single molecular dual analyte sensor and quantifies Hg2+ and Ag+ by luminescence at two different wavelengths. The sensor has stronger binding to Hg2+ than to its likely competitor Ag+ allowing quantification of Hg2+ in a sample with Ag+ without a masking agent. 1 also selectively senses Ag+ in the absence of Hg2+ by enhancing the PL intensity at a different wavelength. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Kma L.,North - Eastern Hill University
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Radiation exposure leads to several pathophysiological conditions, including oxidative damage, inflammation and fibrosis, thereby affecting the survival of organisms. This review explores the radiation countermeasure properties of fourteen (14) plant extracts or plant-derived compounds against these cellular manifestations. It was aimed at evaluating the possible role of plants or its constituents in radiation countermeasure strategy. All the 14 plant extracts or compounds derived from it and considered in this review have shown some radioprotection in different in vivo, ex-vivo and or in vitro models of radiological injury. However, few have demonstrated advantages over the others. C. majus possessing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects appears to be promising in radioprotection. Its crude extracts as well as various alkaloids and flavonoids derived from it, have shown to enhance survival rate in irradiated mice. Similarly, curcumin with its antioxidant and the ability to ameliorate late effect of radiation exposure, combined with improvement in survival in experimental animal following irradiation, makes it another probable candidate against radiological injury. Furthermore, the extracts of P. hexandrum and P. kurroa in combine treatment regime, M. piperita, E. officinalis, A. sinensis, nutmeg, genistein and ginsan warrants further studies on their radioprotective potentials. However, one that has received a lot of attention is the dietary flaxseed. The scavenging ability against radiation-induced free radicals, prevention of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, reduction in radiation cachexia, level of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis, are some of the remarkable characteristics of flaxseed in animal models of radiation injury. While countering the harmful effects of radiation exposure, it has shown its ability to enhance survival rate in experimental animals. Further, flaxseed has been tested and found to be equally effective when administered before or after irradiation, and against low doses (≥5 Gy) to the whole body or high doses (12-13.5 Gy) to the whole thorax. This is particularly relevant since apart from the possibility of using it in pre-conditioning regime in radiotherapy, it could also be used during nuclear plant leakage/accidents and radiological terrorism, which are not pre-determined scenarios. However, considering the infancy of the field of plant-based radioprotectors, all the above-mentioned plant extracts/plant-derived compounds deserves further stringent study in different models of radiation injury.

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