North China Electrical Power University

www.ncepu.edu.cn
Baoding, China

North China Electric Power University is a university based in Beijing, People's Republic of China under the national Ministry of Education that specializes in polytechnic disciplines. Wikipedia.

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State Grid Corporation of China, North China Electrical Power University and STATE GRID LIAONING Electrical POWER COMPANY Ltd ECONOMIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE | Date: 2014-07-26

A renewable energy-based hybrid bi-directionally interactive DC traction power supply system includes two traction substations. Each substation includes transformers, rectifiers, bidirectional AC-DC converters, a DC bus, a catenary, a steel rail and a section post. A DC bus between two adjacent traction substations is provided with a DC renewable energy system constructed by an electric vehicle charging-discharging system, a distributed generation and more than one low voltage DC microgrid. The DC renewable energy system is connected to the DC bus between two adjacent traction substations through a high voltage DC bus, thus a DC circular microgrid being formed in a power supply section post. The electric vehicle charging-discharging system is formed by more than one bidirectional DC-DC charging-discharging equipments which are intended for in connection with the power batteries of the electric vehicle. The renewable energy-based hybrid bi-directionally interactive DC traction power supply system of the invention realizes effective usage of distributed generation and recycling of electric locomotive braking energy, reducing DC voltage fluctuation, thus improving reliability of the DC traction power supply system.

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1. A renewable energy-based hybrid bi-directionally interactive DC traction power supply system comprising at least two traction substations ( 1) for supplying DC energy to an electric locomotive ( 2), wherein each traction substation ( 1) has more than one first transformer ( 11) connected to a AC bus ( 5) and more than one second transformer ( 17) connected to the AC bus ( 5); the other end of each first transformer ( 11) is correspondingly coupled to a rectifier ( 12), and the other end of each second transformer ( 17) is correspondingly coupled to a bidirectional AC-DC converter ( 18); the other end of each rectifier ( 12) and bidirectional AC-DC converter ( 18) is coupled to a DC bus ( 13) of a corresponding traction substation ( 1); the positive and negative ends of the DC bus ( 13) are connected to a catenary ( 14) and steel rail ( 15) respectively; the positive and negative ends of the electric locomotive ( 2) are connected to the catenary ( 14) and steel rail ( 15) respectively; the catenary ( 14) of each traction substation ( 1) is coupled with a section post 16; the both ends of the section post 16 are connected to positive end of a corresponding DC bus ( 13); a DC bus ( 13) between two adjacent traction substations ( 1) is provided with a DC renewable energy system ( 3) constructed by an electric vehicle charging-discharging system, a distributed generation and more than one low voltage DC microgrid ( 31); the DC renewable energy system ( 3) is connected to the DC bus ( 13) between two adjacent traction substations ( 1) through a high voltage DC bus ( 4), thus a DC circular microgrid being formed in a power supply section post, and wherein the electric vehicle charging-discharging system is formed by more than one bidirectional DC-DC charging-discharging equipments ( 32) which are intended for in connection with the power batteries of the electric vehicle.

2. The renewable energy-based hybrid bi-directionally interactive DC traction power supply system as recited in claim 1, wherein an output end, for connecting to the power batteries of the electric vehicle, of each DC-DC charging-discharging equipments ( 32) is connected in parallel to a super capacitor.

3. The renewable energy-based hybrid bi-directionally interactive DC traction power supply system as recited in claim 1, wherein the distributed generation includes more than one micro gas turbine ( 33), more than one wind turbine generator 35, more than one fuel cell ( 37), and more than one solar photovoltaic cell ( 39); each of the micro gas turbine ( 33) and wind turbine generator 35 is connected respectively to the high voltage DC bus ( 4) by a unidirectional AC-DC converter ( 34/ 36); and each of the fuel cell ( 37) and solar photovoltaic cell ( 39) is connected respectively to the high voltage DC bus ( 4) by a unidirectional DC-DC converter ( 38/ 40).

4. The renewable energy-based hybrid bi-directionally interactive DC traction power supply system as recited in claim 1, wherein the low voltage DC microgrid ( 31) comprises a circular low voltage DC bus ( 311 a) connected to the high voltage DC bus ( 4) via a bidirectional DC-DC converter ( 312), more than one energy storage device ( 3110), more than one micro gas turbine ( 316), more than one solar photovoltaic cell ( 317), more than one fuel cell ( 318), more than one wind turbine generator ( 319), more than one unidirectional DC-AC converter ( 3111), more than one bidirectional DC-DC charging-discharging equipment ( 3112), and more than one unidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3113); each of the solar photovoltaic cell ( 317) and fuel cell ( 318) is connected respectively to the circular low voltage DC bus ( 311 a) by a unidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3117/ 3116); each of the micro gas turbine ( 316) and wind turbine generator ( 319) is connected respectively to the circular low voltage DC bus ( 311 a) by a unidirectional AC-DC converter ( 3114/ 3115); each energy storage device ( 3110) is connected to the circular low voltage DC bus ( 311 a) through a bidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3118); an output end of each unidirectional DC-AC converter ( 3111) is connected to an AC load ( 313); the other end of each bidirectional DC-DC charging-discharging equipment ( 3112) is connected to the battery of the electric vehicle ( 314); and an output end of each unidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3113) is connected to a DC load ( 315).

5. The renewable energy-based hybrid bi-directionally interactive DC traction power supply system as recited in claim 1, wherein the low voltage DC microgrid ( 31) comprises a radial low voltage DC bus ( 311 b) connected to the high voltage DC bus ( 4) via a bidirectional DC-DC converter ( 312), more than one energy storage device ( 3110), more than one micro gas turbine ( 316), more than one solar photovoltaic cell ( 317), more than one fuel cell ( 318), more than one wind turbine generator ( 319), more than one unidirectional DC-AC converter ( 3111), more than one bidirectional DC-DC charging-discharging equipment ( 3112), and more than one unidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3113); each of the solar photovoltaic cell ( 317) and fuel cell ( 318) is connected respectively to the radial low voltage DC bus ( 311 b) by a unidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3117/ 3116); each of the micro gas turbine ( 316) and wind turbine generator ( 319) is connected respectively to the radial low voltage DC bus 311 b by a unidirectional AC-DC converter ( 3114/ 3115); each energy storage device ( 3110) is connected to the radial low voltage DC bus ( 311 b) through a bidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3118); an output end of each unidirectional DC-AC converter ( 3111) is connected to an AC load ( 313); the other end of each bidirectional DC-DC charging-discharging equipment ( 3112) is connected to the battery of the electric vehicle ( 314); and an output end of each unidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3113) is connected to a DC load ( 315).

6. A renewable energy-based hybrid bi-directionally interactive DC traction power supply system comprising a traction substations ( 1) for supplying DC energy to an electric locomotive ( 2), wherein each traction substation ( 1) has more than one first transformer ( 11) connected to a AC bus ( 5) and more than one second transformer ( 17) connected to the AC bus ( 5); the other end of each first transformer ( 11) is correspondingly coupled to a rectifier ( 12), and the other end of each second transformer ( 17) is correspondingly coupled to a bidirectional AC-DC converter ( 18); the other end of each rectifier ( 12) and bidirectional AC-DC converter ( 18) is coupled to a DC bus ( 13) of a corresponding traction substation ( 1); the positive and negative ends of the DC bus ( 13) are connected to a catenary ( 14) and steel rail ( 15) respectively; the positive and negative ends of the electric locomotive ( 2) are connected to the catenary ( 14) and steel rail ( 15) respectively; a DC bus ( 13) is provided with a DC renewable energy system ( 3) constructed by an electric vehicle charging-discharging system, a distributed generation and more than one low voltage DC microgrid ( 31); the DC renewable energy system ( 3) is connected to the DC bus ( 13) of the traction substations ( 1) through a high voltage DC bus ( 4), thus a DC circular microgrid being formed in a power supply section post, and wherein the electric vehicle charging-discharging system is formed by more than one bidirectional DC-DC charging-discharging equipments ( 32) which are intended for in connection with the power batteries of the electric vehicle.

7. The renewable energy-based hybrid bi-directionally interactive DC traction power supply system as recited in claim 6, wherein an output end, for connecting to the power batteries of the electric vehicle, of each DC-DC charging-discharging equipments ( 32) is connected in parallel to a super capacitor.

8. The renewable energy-based hybrid bi-directionally interactive DC traction power supply system as recited in claim 6, wherein the distributed generation includes more than one micro gas turbine ( 33), more than one wind turbine generator ( 35), more than one fuel cell ( 37), and more than one solar photovoltaic cell ( 39); each of the micro gas turbine ( 33) and wind turbine generator ( 35) is connected respectively to the high voltage DC bus ( 4) by a unidirectional AC-DC converter ( 34/ 36); and each of the fuel cell ( 37) and solar photovoltaic cell ( 39) is connected respectively to the high voltage DC bus ( 4) by a unidirectional DC-DC converter ( 38/ 40).

9. The renewable energy-based hybrid bi-directionally interactive DC traction power supply system as recited in claim 6, wherein the low voltage DC microgrid ( 31) comprises a circular low voltage DC bus ( 311 a) connected to the high voltage DC bus ( 4) via a bidirectional DC-DC converter ( 312), more than one energy storage device ( 3110), more than one micro gas turbine ( 316), more than one solar photovoltaic cell ( 317), more than one fuel cell ( 318), more than one wind turbine generator ( 319), more than one unidirectional DC-AC converter ( 3111), more than one bidirectional DC-DC charging-discharging equipment ( 3112), and more than one unidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3113); each of the solar photovoltaic cell ( 317) and fuel cell ( 318) is connected respectively to the circular low voltage DC bus ( 311 a) by a unidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3117/ 3116); each of the micro gas turbine ( 316) and wind turbine generator ( 319) is connected respectively to the circular low voltage DC bus ( 311 a) by a unidirectional AC-DC converter ( 3114/ 3115); each energy storage device ( 3110) is connected to the circular low voltage DC bus ( 311 a) through a bidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3118); an output end of each unidirectional DC-AC converter ( 3111) is connected to an AC load ( 313); the other end of each bidirectional DC-DC charging-discharging equipment ( 3112) is connected to the battery of the electric vehicle ( 314); and an output end of each unidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3113) is connected to a DC load ( 315).

10. The renewable energy-based hybrid bi-directionally interactive DC traction power supply system as recited in claim 6, wherein the low voltage DC microgrid ( 31) comprises a radial low voltage DC bus ( 311 b) connected to the high voltage DC bus ( 4) via a bidirectional DC-DC converter ( 312), more than one energy storage device ( 3110), more than one micro gas turbine ( 316), more than one solar photovoltaic cell ( 317), more than one fuel cell ( 318), more than one wind turbine generator ( 319), more than one unidirectional DC-AC converter ( 3111), more than one bidirectional DC-DC charging-discharging equipment ( 3112), and more than one unidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3113); each of the solar photovoltaic cell ( 317) and fuel cell ( 318) is connected respectively to the radial low voltage DC bus ( 311 b) by a unidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3117/ 3116); each of the micro gas turbine ( 316) and wind turbine generator ( 319) is connected respectively to the radial low voltage DC bus ( 311 b) by a unidirectional AC-DC converter ( 3114/ 3115); each energy storage device ( 3110) is connected to the radial low voltage DC bus ( 311 b) through a bidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3118); an output end of each unidirectional DC-AC converter ( 3111) is connected to an AC load ( 313); the other end of each bidirectional DC-DC charging-discharging equipment ( 3112) is connected to the battery of the electric vehicle ( 314); and an output end of each unidirectional DC-DC converter ( 3113) is connected to a DC load ( 315).


Shen J.,North China Electrical Power University | Luo C.,North China Electrical Power University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

China is vast, abundant and particularly plentiful in energy sources, due to which it has obtained remarkable achievements on economy. However, its energy structure is too simple to support the sustainable development of economy as coal still contributes to the majority of energy consumption in China. As a consequence, Renewable Energy Law was enacted in 2005, and Chinese government announced a series of policies to boom renewable energy industry. Subsidy policy is one of the major forms of these policies. This paper aims to present these subsidy policies and to analyze their effects according to relative data in energy industry 2005-2013, to find out the deficiencies and enlighten possible policy improvements. The original intentions and abstracts of 5 different levels of subsidy related policies are summarized, and the effects in reality are attentively analyzed. It can be concluded that subsidy policies have different short-term effect on different renewable energies, and they all show some negative effect to a certain extent. 6 core problems are summarized in this paper, and remedy strategies are suggested. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Document Keywords (matching the query): renewable energies, renewable energy, energy policy, energy industry development, energy industry.


Liu J.,North China Electrical Power University
Zhongguo Dianji Gongcheng Xuebao/Proceedings of the Chinese Society of Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

The difference between the renewable power and the conventional power was analyzed. The concept of the alternate electrical power system with renewable energy sources and its characteristics were proposed. The challenging problems of the alternate electrical power system were discussed. Furthermore, the whole solution for the alternate electrical power system was suggested based on the responses of power supply, grid and load. Aiming at the state of the art of the resource distribution and also the power system of China, the basic science issues are presented to provide theoretical and technical supports for the utilization of large-scale renewable power with security and high efficiency, i.e. the dynamics of the alternate electrical power systems and its modeling theory; the complementary mechanisms and the coordinated control theories of the alternate electrical power system; the fault evolution mechanism of the alternate electrical power system and the security defense strategy. © 2013 Chin. Soc. for Elec. Eng.

Document Keywords (matching the query): renewable energy resources.


Zhang S.,North China Electrical Power University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

During 2010 and 2011, China had been the largest producer of wind turbines in the world for two consecutive years. How China can transform from being the largest producer to being the strongest producer of wind turbines is currently a great concern in the industry. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this issue from the perspective of the international competitiveness of China's wind turbine manufacturing industry. Firstly, the paper establishes a model for evaluating the international competitiveness of wind turbine manufacturing industry, which consists of five first-level indexes and 10 second-level indexes. Then, the paper uses these indexes to evaluate the international competitiveness of six leading wind turbine companies in the world - Vestas (Denmark), Gamesa (Germany), GE Wind (the USA), Nordex (Spain), Suzlon (India) and Sinovel (China). The result shows that the international competitiveness of the Chinese wind turbine company, Sinovel, ranked the fifth, lagging behind Vestas, Gamesa, GE Wind and Suzlon. Finally, the paper makes in-depth analysis on the major factors that hamper the international competitiveness of China's wind turbine manufacturing industry and provides implications for future development of the industry. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All right reserved.

Document Keywords (matching the query): renewable energy, renewable energies.


Zhang S.,North China Electrical Power University
Energy | Year: 2016

DSPV (Distributed solar PV) power, either located on rooftops or ground-mounted, is by far one of the most important and fast-growing renewable energy technologies. Since the second half of 2012, China has shifted from LSPV (large-scale solar PV) to DSPV and a series of policy to promote DSPV power deployment have been put in place. Unfortunately these policies were not well performed due to myriad constraints on DSPV power deployment across the country. Building mainly on non-academic sources including government documents and presentations, industry reports and presentations, media reports, and interviews, this paper firstly provides a comprehensive review of China's policy on DSPV passed between the second half of 2012 and the first half of 2014, then barriers associated with DSPV deployment are identified. This is followed by an account and discussions of recent policy changes since Sep 2014, and major local incentives. In addition, policy performance is briefly reviewed. At the end of the paper, conclusions and policy implications are provided. This paper provides an understanding of the recent DSPV policy progress in China and insights for policy makers in other economies which are experimenting DSPV power policies. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Document Keywords (matching the query): renewable energy policy.


Zhao H.-R.,North China Electrical Power University | Guo S.,North China Electrical Power University | Fu L.-W.,North China Electrical Power University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Nowadays, renewable energy plays a vital role in the sustainable development of a society. In China, renewable energy power has developed rapidly since the implementation of Renewable Energy Act. Through a series of specific incentive measures, especially subsidy policies, Chinas renewable energy power has made great achievements both in technology and application. Based on the state-of-the-art of renewable energy power, this paper comprehensively analyzed the costs and benefits of renewable energy power subsidy in China. The analysis results show the cost of renewable energy power subsidy was 0.248 CNY/kWh between 2006 and April 2011, which was distributed among different renewable energy power types (including wind power, biomass power, and solar PV power) or categories (including electricity price, accessing-grid projects, and public independent renewable energy power system). On the other hand, the renewable energy power subsidy also brings benefits to different aspects of the society. Specifically, the environmental benefit amounted to 17.88 billion CNY, and the benefits of guaranteeing energy security, advancing technology innovation and promoting economic development were also noteworthy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Document Keywords (matching the query): renewable energy power, renewable energy power subsidy, energy policy.


Ming Z.,North China Electrical Power University | Ximei L.,North China Electrical Power University | Yulong L.,North China Electrical Power University | Lilin P.,North China Electrical Power University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

With the support of national policies, China's renewable energy generation industry has experienced a rapid development period and entered the world forefront level, especially in the aspects of installed capacity and speed of newly installed capacity. However, with the rapid development of renewable energy, the power generation industry is facing more and more challenges, particularly in investment and financing. As for wind power industry, there are also some problems such as single financing channels, blindness of projects investment and so on, which will result in financing difficulties for some advanced projects. In addition, the problems for the investment of photovoltaic (PV) power generation leads to vicious competition and a tumble in international market, thus the overcapacity of China's entire PV industry emerges. Generally speaking, the renewable energy industry is facing a seemingly contradictory predicament of funding deficiencies and blind investment, which is derived from the government-centered renewable energy investment and financing. This government-centered mode has promoted the development of renewable energy industry in the early stage, but it cannot be adapted to the requirements of sustainable development. In view of these, the problems of renewable energy investment and financing are deeply studied in this paper. This paper proceeds as follows: Firstly, the overview of the development of China's renewable energy industry is briefly introduced. Secondly, the status quo of China's renewable energy investment and financing is explored in detail based on overview of the following five perspectives: investment situation; investment and financing bodies; investment and financing means; sources of funding and financing channels. Secondly, the patterns and characteristics of renewable energy financing are summarized and a comparative analysis of wind power and photovoltaic power generation financing means is carried out. Finally, renewable energy investment and financing issues are discussed and further feasible proposals are put forward. In all, this paper is of great significance in the sustainable and healthy development of China's renewable energy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Document Keywords (matching the query): solar energy, renewable energy generation, renewable energy investments, renewable energy, renewable energy industries, renewable energy financings, renewable energies.


Cong R.-G.,North China Electrical Power University | Cong R.-G.,Lund University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

In response to climate change, China's power industry is undertaking the task of reducing carbon emissions. Renewable energy generation has become an important option. For the government and state grid companies, it is important to know the maximum possible capacities of renewable energy generation from its different sources in order to plan the construction of the power grid in the future. In this paper, several important factors affecting the development of renewable energy generation are identified through a review of the existing literature (such as cost, technical maturity and so on) and analyzed. Combined with the learning curve model, the technology diffusion model and expectations about future economic development in China, a new model, the Renewable Energy Optimization Model (REOM), is developed to analyze the development of three renewable energy sources (wind power, solar power and biomass power) from 2009 to 2020. Results show that (1) the maximum installed capacities of wind power, solar power and biomass power will reach 233321, 26680 and 35506 MW in 2020; (2) from 2009 to 2020, biomass power will develop rapidly at the early stage while wind power is developed massively at the final stage and solar power has relatively stable growth; (3) due to the added capacity in the early periods, the unit investment cost of solar power shows a large decline, which is good for its following scale development; (4) the investment ratio constraint has a large effect on the development of wind power while the constraint of on-grid proportion of renewable energy generation has a significant effect on the development of wind power and solar power. The results have important policy implications for long-term energy planning in developing countries, such as China and India. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Document Keywords (matching the query): solar energy, renewable energy generation, renewable energies, renewable energy optimization model reom.


Wu Y.,North China Electrical Power University | Xu R.,North China Electrical Power University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Gansu province is relatively less developed in economy, whereas abundant in Renewable Energy Sources (RES). It has been counting on heavy industry for a long time and highly dependent on fossil fuels, causing serious pollutions. Meanwhile, its own power demand is insufficient, thus its RES-generated electricity must be out-delivered. After the Renewable Energy Law (REL) took effect in 2006, RES development is booming in this area, bringing about a series of problems as well. This paper aims to present the current status, future potentials and challenges in Gansu by carrying out a detailed review of relevant studies, along with surveys on the wind and solar developers. Particularly, Gansu is a typical province in terms of RES development in Northwest China. It can be concluded that the RES development in this district is policy-driven to avoid risks in technology cost efficiency, grid co-development and so on. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Document Keywords (matching the query): renewable energy resources, renewable energy, renewable energies.


Zeng M.,North China Electrical Power University | Li C.,North China Electrical Power University | Zhou L.,North China Electrical Power University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

The Renewable Energy Law has been formulated by China government in 2005. During the next few years, there has been dramatic progress in China's renewable energy industries, along with the formation of the policy system of renewable energy in China. It is widely recognized that a reasonable and effective policy system can lay the solid foundation for the development of renewable energy. Regarding the rapid growth of renewable energy with a host of relevant policies issued in China, there is an urgent need to study the policy system of renewable energy in view of the latest situations to further promote the development of renewable energy. This paper is a systematical review about the promotion of China's policy system of renewable energy since Renewable Energy Law issued. Achievements on the policy system of renewable energy in 2011 as of 2005 are discussed. Experiences from recent periods are drawn and factors limiting the policy system of renewable energy are also addressed in details to probe the policy predicament and solutions. The development tendency of renewable energy is presented and the framework is drafted to set the framing constraints for China's policy system of renewable energy. Finally, policy suggestions are proposed for the successful implementation of renewable energy policies within the framing constraints of the policy system and the long-term healthy development of renewable energy in China. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Document Keywords (matching the query): renewable energy, renewable energy policy, renewable energy law, renewable energy industries, renewable energy resources, renewable energies, energy policy.

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