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Minneapolis, MN, United States

North Central University is a coeducational, undergraduate, primarily residential college owned and operated by 11 Assemblies of God districts of the upper Midwest. It is located in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. The school was founded in 1930 and is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. Wikipedia.

Caro X.J.,Northridge | Winter E.F.,North Central University
Arthritis and Rheumatology | Year: 2014

Objective A subset of patients with fibromyalgia (FM) exhibit a large fiber demyelinating peripheral polyneuropathy akin to that seen in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). It has been suggested that this demyelinating process is likely to be immune mediated. Because it is known that similar large fiber neuropathic lesions may be associated with a cutaneous small fiber neuropathy, we sought to determine the prevalence of small fiber neuropathy, as measured by epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD), in a series of patients with FM and clinically healthy control subjects. Methods Forty-one consecutive patients with FM and 47 control subjects underwent a 3-mm punch skin biopsy at the proximal thigh and distal leg near the ankle, for analysis of the ENFD. Patients with FM who had clinical evidence of a disorder known to be associated with small fiber neuropathy were excluded. The patients with FM also underwent pinwheel testing and vibratory testing for hypesthesia and serologic testing for a series of cytokine, circulating immune complex, and complement measurements. Results All patients with FM had evidence of stocking hypesthesia. The ENFD of patients with FM was lower than that of control subjects at both the calf (mean ± SD 5.8 ± 2.8 versus 7.4 ± 1.9; P = 0.0002) and thigh (9.3 ± 3.2 versus 11.3 ± 2.0; P = 0.0007). There was an inverse correlation between calf ENFD and age at the time of skin biopsy in patients with FM (r = -0.29, P = 0.03) but not in control subjects; however, analysis of covariance showed that this relationship could not be explained by aging alone. Serologic evaluation showed an inverse correlation between calf ENFD in patients with FM and the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) level (r = -0.28, P = 0.04). However, an inverse correlation between thigh ENFD and serum IL-2R levels did not reach significance (P = 0.08). Analysis of thigh-to-calf ENFD ratios suggested that the ENFD decline in FM is affected by both a diffuse and a length-dependent process. Conclusion The calf and thigh ENFD in patients with FM is significantly diminished compared with that in control subjects. Advancing age alone cannot explain this finding. Calf ENFD was inversely correlated, although weakly, with serum levels of IL-2R. These findings suggest that small fiber neuropathy is likely to contribute to the pain symptoms of FM; that pain in this disorder arises, in part, from a peripheral immune-mediated process; and that measurement of ENFD may be a useful clinical tool in FM. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

Endecott R.L.,Montana State University | Funston R.N.,North Central University | Mulliniks J.T.,New Mexico State University | Roberts A.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

Research emphasis has been placed on heifer development strategies in recent years, comparing traditional, more intensive systems to more extensive systems using less feed and relying on compensatory gain to reach a target BW. Recent research has indicated that developing heifers to a lighter target BW at breeding (i.e., 50 to 57% of mature BW compared with 60 to 65% BW) reduced development costs and did not impair reproductive performance. Research published through the late 1980s demonstrated greater negative effects of limited postweaning growth on age at puberty and pregnancy rates whereas more recent studies demonstrate less of a negative impact of delayed puberty on pregnancy rate. A limitation of most research concerning infl uences of nutrition on heifer development and cow reproductive performance is little or limited consideration of long-term implications. Longevity has relatively low heritability; therefore, heifer development and other management strategies have a greater potential to impact cow retention. Establishing the impact of heifer development protocols on longevity is complex, requiring consideration of nutritional factors after the start of breeding and through subsequent calvings. Lower-input heifer development, where all heifers are managed together after the postweaning period, did not impair rebreeding, but continued subsequent restriction in the form of marginal winter supplementation resulted in decreased retention in the breeding herd. Therefore, the compensatory BW gain period for restricted-growth heifers may be important to longevity and lifetime productivity. Adequate growth and development to ensure minimal calving diffi culty can be of critical importance for longevity; however, providing additional supplemental feed during postweaning development to accomplish this may be less effi cient than later in development. Restricting gain during postweaning development by limiting DMI or developing heifers on dormant winter forage resulted in increased economic advantages compared with developing heifers at greater rates of ADG to achieve a greater target BW. Implications of heifer development system on cow longevity must be considered when evaluating economics of a heifer enterprise; however, studies evaluating the effects of heifer development systems on cow longevity are extremely limited. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science.

Lehan T.,North Central University | Arango-Lasprilla J.C.,University of Deusto | Macias M.,University of Guadalajara | Aguayo A.,University of Guadalajara | Villasenor T.,University of Guadalajara
Rehabilitation Psychology | Year: 2012

Purpose/Objective: The objectives of this quantitative correlational study were to: (a) determine the frequency and level of distress associated with patients' symptoms as reported by caregivers of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), (b) determine the prevalence of depression in these caregivers, and (c) examine the relationship between these caregivers' total symptom distress and depression after controlling for patient, caregiver, and illness characteristics. Method/Design: In this quantitative correlational study, data from 79 caregivers of individuals with MS in Mexico were analyzed. Results: The patient symptoms with the highest average level of distress for caregivers were depression, difficulty talking, difficulty hearing, becoming upset easily, and upsetting other people. Patient symptoms with the lowest average level of distress for caregivers included difficulty learning, seizures, trouble reading, difficulty eating, and difficulty writing. Forty percent of the caregivers met the criteria for probable major depressive disorder. Results of a multivariate regression analysis showed that caregiver total symptom distress was significantly related to caregiver depression, after controlling for patient marital status, caregiver gender, caregiver relationship to patient, caregiver current employment, and months spent caregiving. Conclusions: These findings have implications for MS patients and caregivers as well as larger society, as depression in caregivers often results in the institutionalization of individuals with chronic illnesses and disabilities, which is costly for both individuals and society. In addition, there might be increased expenditures associated with the caregivers' own declining health. For these reasons, it is important to develop a better understanding of its risk factors to identify caregivers who might benefit from intervention. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

Funston R.N.,North Central University
Journal of animal science | Year: 2010

Developmental programming is the concept that a maternal stimulus or insult at a critical period in fetal development has long-term effects on the offspring. Historically, considerable effort has been made to understand how nutrition influences health and productivity during the postnatal period. Whereas maternal nutrition during pregnancy plays an essential role in proper fetal and placental development, less is known about how maternal nutrition affects the health and productivity of the offspring. Conceptus growth is sensitive to direct and indirect effects of maternal dietary intake. Even from the earliest stages of embryonic life, when nutrient requirements for conceptus growth are negligible, alterations in tissue composition can occur, influencing future growth of the compromised organ system. Not only is neonatal health compromised, but subsequent health may also be programmed because offspring from undernourished dams have exhibited poor growth and productivity and have developed significant diseases later in life. Although the literature is now evolving, with increasing evidence of how maternal nutrient restriction impairs several prenatal physiological variables, few studies have evaluated postnatal growth and development in livestock species, and fewer have evaluated it in beef cattle. In addition, very few studies have evaluated restriction of specific components of the diet during pregnancy (such as protein) on offspring growth and performance. This review focuses on how maternal nutrition affects conceptus growth and postnatal responses in beef cattle.

The adoption of Bt corn has been largely overshadowed by concerns about their unintended effects on human health and the environment. Residues of transgenic Bt crops decomposed more slowly than their non-transgenic isolines in one laboratory study, although no mechanism to explain these observations was proposed. If Bt crop residues were to decompose more slowly in field soils, changes in carbon cycling and nutrient availability could result. We compared the in-field decomposition rates and diversity of decomposers colonizing residues of two Cry1Ab Bt corn hybrids, active against the European corn borer, with their non-transgenic isolines in litterbags placed in a Nebraska field. After five months, we found no significant differences in either the rates of residue mass loss or in the bacterial, fungal or micro-arthropod communities colonizing the transgenic versus the non-transgenic residues. Instead, both residue mass loss and detritivore colonizers were significantly affected by residue placement (surface versus buried) and plant part, demonstrating that environmental factors and residue quality, not the presence of the Cry1Ab protein, were the key drivers of residue decomposition and detritivore colonization in this study. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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