Saunoris J.W.,Eastern Michigan University |
Sheridan B.J.,North Central College
Energy Policy | Year: 2013
In this paper, we use a panel of the 48 contiguous US states over the period 1970-2009 to examine the dynamics of electricity demand in addressing the four hypotheses set forth in the literature: growth, conservation, neutrality, and feedback. In doing so we provide both short-run and long-run elasticity estimates for electricity demand. Recent developments in nonstationary panel estimation techniques allow for heterogeneity in the coefficients while examining the direction of causality among electricity consumption, electricity prices, and income growth. In addition to the full sample, we also disaggregate the sample into three sectors: commercial, industrial, and residential. The short-run results provide evidence in favor of the growth hypothesis for the aggregate sample, as well as for the industrial sector. For the residential and commercial sectors, the conservation hypothesis is supported. Long-run results favor the conservation hypothesis. To ascertain differences in electricity demand relating to electricity intensity we also examine states based on their efficiency in electricity consumption. Overall, the results yield in favor of the growth hypothesis for low intensity states and conservation hypothesis for high intensity states. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Glasgow S.,North Central College |
Schrecker T.,Durham University
Health and Place | Year: 2016
The growing prevalence of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is now recognized as one of the major global health policy issues of the early 21st century. Current official approaches reflect ambivalence about how health policy should approach the social determinants of health identified by the WHO Commission on the topic that released its report in 2008, and in particular the role of macro-scale economic and social processes. Authoritative framing of options for NCD prevention in advance of the September, 2011 UN high-level meeting on NCDs arguably relied on a selective reading of the scientific (including social scientific) evidence, and foregrounded a limited number of risk factors defined in terms of individual behavior: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, alcohol (ab)use and physical inactivity. The effect was to reproduce at a transnational level the individualization of responsibility for health that characterizes most health promotion initiatives in high-income countries, ignoring both the limited control that many people have over their exposure to these risk factors and the contribution of macro-scale processes like trade liberalization and the marketing activities of transnational corporations to the global burden of NCDs. An alternative perspective focuses on "the inequitable distribution of power, money, and resources" described by the WHO Commission, and the ways in which policies that address those inequities can avoid unintentional incorporation of neoliberal constructions of risk and responsibility. © 2016.
Hood M.M.,Rush University Medical Center |
Nackers L.M.,Rush University Medical Center |
Azarbad L.,North Central College |
Ivan I.,Palo Alto University |
Corsica J.,Rush University Medical Center
Psychological Assessment | Year: 2013
Screening for depression is an integral part of psychological evaluations conducted prior to bariatric surgery. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is the most commonly used measure of depression in these treatment evaluations. The reliability and validity of the BDI-II has not yet been evaluated within bariatric surgery-seeking samples, evidencing a significant gap in the present literature. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the structural validity of the BDI-II and to examine the reliability and convergent and criterion validity of this instrument within a bariatric surgery-seeking sample. The study population consisted of 505 ethnically diverse bariatric surgery candidates presenting for presurgical psychological evaluations in a midwestern urban academic medical center. Confirmatory factor analytic results indicated that a 3-factor model consisting of affective, cognitive, and somatic factors was the best fitting model of depression within this sample. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory for each subscale, ranging from .72 to .82. Moderate to large correlations were observed between each BDI-II subscale and a measure of depression previously validated with bariatric surgery candidates indicating adequate convergent validity. On the basis of clinical interview, 14% of the sample was diagnosed with current major depression. Significant mean differences were observed between depressed and nondepressed patients with respect to each BDI-II subscale score, demonstrating criterion-related validity. The BDI-II is a reliable and valid measure of depression for bariatric surgery candidates. Understanding the factor structure of the BDI-II can be useful for planning potential presurgical psychological interventions. © 2012 American Psychological Association.
Grupski A.E.,Rush University Medical Center |
Hood M.M.,Rush University Medical Center |
Hall B.J.,Kent State University |
Hall B.J.,Medical University of South Carolina |
And 4 more authors.
Obesity Surgery | Year: 2013
Background: This study assessed the utility of the Binge Eating Scale (BES) as a measure of binge eating disorder (BED) in a bariatric surgery-seeking population by (a) determining the optimal BES cut score for predicting BED, (b) calculating concordance statistics, and (c) determining the predictive value of each BES item. Methods: Four hundred seventy-three patients presented for a psychological evaluation prior to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. The BES and the SCID semi-structured interview for BED were administered. Results: Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses identified an optimal BES cut score of 17, which correctly classified 78% of patients with BED. A cut score of 27 improved this statistic, but significantly increased the number of false negatives, which is undesirable for a screening assessment. Discriminant function analyses revealed that nearly all BES items significantly predicted BED. Conclusions: The BES is a valid screener of BED for patients seeking bariatric surgery; however, false positives can be expected. Administering the BES as part of a comprehensive psychological evaluation can help improve the assessment and treatment of patients presenting for bariatric surgery. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.
Weilhoefer C.L.,US Ecology |
Weilhoefer C.L.,North Central College
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2011
This review critically evaluates indicators of tidal wetland condition based on 36 indicator development studies and indicators developed as part of U.S. state tidal wetland monitoring programs. Individual metrics were evaluated based on relative scores on two sets of evaluation factors. A rigor score evaluated metric development based on conceptual relevance, indicator development method, degree of independent validation, and temporal and spatial extent tested. An applicability score evaluated metrics based on cost of data collection, probable spatial extent of applicability, technical complexity, and indicator responsiveness. The majority of indicators could be classified as biotic condition indicators (81%), with vegetation (37%) and macroinvertebrate (28%) metrics composing the largest proportion. Most metrics provided a conceptual model or scientific justification (97%), were developed by correlation to environmental gradients (46%), were tested over multiple seasons or years (49%) and at multiple sites (88%). Few were independently validated (18%). Average rigor score was 10 (on a scale of 0-25) and ranged between 1 and 21. Highest rigor scores were for trematode community metrics (community similarity index, species richness) and metrics of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) individuals (gene expression, relative fecundity, embryo hatching success, larval survival). Most metrics had a high cost of data collection (63%), required field and laboratory processing (84%), would be applicable across the U.S. (72%), and were responsive to the variable of interest (44%). Mean applicability score was 4.9 (range: 2-8). Highest scores were found for metrics that only required field collection of data using simple or no instrumentation. Lowest scoring metrics required expensive equipment, specialized taxonomic knowledge, complex laboratory analysis, and/or culturing of organisms. Scores for individual metrics were grouped by indicator, then averaged and rescaled between 0 and 100 to provide a composite evaluation of the indicator they measured. Among major indicator types, biotic indicators had the highest rigor scores (mean=44, range 20-79), followedby indicators of chemical/physical characteristics (mean=36, range 16-56), landscape condition (mean=31, range 24-37), and hydrology/geomorphology indicators (mean=21, range 4-52). In contrast, biotic indicators scored lowest for applicability (mean=58, range 25-100) and indicators of landscape condition scored highest. The results of this review suggest that the development and selection of tidal wetland indicators could be vastly improved by employing a standardized development methodology that provides uniform information about each indicator.Inaddition, tidal wetland indicator research should focus on the development of indicators of ecological processes and disturbance regimes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.