North Carolina State University, officially North Carolina State University at Raleigh, is a public, coeducational, research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States. Commonly known as NC State or simply State, the university is part of the University of North Carolina system and is a land, sea, and space grant institution. The university forms one of the corners of the Research Triangle together with Duke University in Durham and The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.The North Carolina General Assembly founded the North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, now NC State, on March 7, 1887, as a land-grant college. Today, NC State has an enrollment of more than 34,000 students, making it the largest university in the Carolinas. NC State has historical strengths in engineering, agriculture, life science, textiles and design and now offers 106 bachelor's degrees. The graduate school offers 104 master's degrees, 61 doctoral degrees, and a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. Wikipedia.
Krim J.,North Carolina State University
Advances in Physics | Year: 2012
This review provides an overview of recent advances that have been achieved in understanding the basic physics of friction and energy dissipation in molecularly thin adsorbed films and the associated impact on friction at microscopic and macroscopic length scales. Topics covered include a historical overview of the fundamental understanding of macroscopic friction, theoretical treatments of phononic and electronic energy dissipation mechanisms in thin films, and current experimental methods capable of probing such phenomena. Measurements performed on adsorbates sliding in unconfined geometries with the quartz crystal microbalance technique receive particular attention. The final sections review the experimental literature of how measurements of sliding friction in thin films reveal energy dissipation mechanisms and how the results can be linked to film-spreading behavior, lubrication, film phase transitions, superconductivity-dependent friction, and microelectromechanical systems applications. Materials systems reported on include adsorbed films comprised of helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, water, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, ethane, ethanol, trifluoroethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, ethylene, pentanol, toluene, tricresylphosphate, t-butylphenyl phosphate, benzene, and iodobenzene. Substrates reported on include silver, gold, aluminum, copper, nickel, lead, silicon, graphite, graphene, fullerenes, C60, diamond, carbon, diamond-like carbon, and YBa2Cu3O7, and self-assembled monolayers consisting of tethered polymeric molecules. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group.
Barrangou R.,North Carolina State University
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2015
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and accompanying Cas proteins constitute the adaptive CRISPR-Cas immune system in bacteria and archaea. This DNA-encoded, RNA-mediated defense system provides sequence-specific recognition, targeting and degradation of exogenous nucleic acid. Though the primary established role of CRISPR-Cas systems is in bona fide adaptive antiviral defense in bacteria, a growing body of evidence indicates that it also plays critical functional roles beyond immunity, such as endogenous transcriptional control. Furthermore, benefits inherent to maintaining genome homeostasis also come at the cost of reduced uptake of beneficial DNA, and preventing strategic adaptation to the environment. This opens new avenues for the investigation of CRISPR-Cas systems and their functional characterization beyond adaptive immunity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Schafer T.,North Carolina State University
Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science | Year: 2014
We review the modern view of fluid dynamics as an effective low-energy, long-wavelength theory of many-body systems at finite temperature. We introduce the concept of a nearly perfect fluid, defined by a ratio η/s of shear viscosity to entropy density of order ℏ/kB or less. Nearly perfect fluids exhibit hydrodynamic behavior at all distances down to the microscopic length scale of the fluid. We summarize arguments that suggest that there is fundamental limit to fluidity, and we review the current experimental situation of measurements of η/s in strongly coupled quantum fluids. © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Clouse S.D.,North Carolina State University
Plant Cell | Year: 2011
Brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction research has progressed rapidly from the initial discovery of the BR receptor to a complete definition of the basic molecular components required to relay the BR signal from perception by receptor kinases at the cell surface to activation of a small family of transcription factors that regulate the expression of more than a thousand genes in a BR-dependent manner. These mechanistic advances have helped answer the intriguing question of how a single molecule, such as a hormone, can have dramatic pleiotropic effects on a broad range of diverse developmental pathways and have shed light on how BRs interact with other plant hormones and environmental cues to shape the growth of the whole plant. This review summarizes the current state of BR signal transduction research and then examines recent articles uncovering gene regulatory networks through which BR influences both vegetative and reproductive development. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists.
Williams G.J.,North Carolina State University
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2013
Naturally occurring polyketides and nonribosomal peptides with broad and potent biological activities continue to inspire the discovery of new and improved analogs. The biosynthetic apparatus responsible for the construction of these natural products has been the target of intensive protein engineering efforts. Traditionally, engineering has focused on substituting individual enzymatic domains or entire modules with those of different building block specificity, or by deleting various enzymatic functions, in an attempt to generate analogs. This review highlights strategies based on site-directed mutagenesis of substrate binding pockets, semi-rational mutagenesis, and whole-gene random mutagenesis to engineer the substrate specificity, activity, and protein interactions of polyketide and nonribosomal peptide biosynthetic machinery. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.