North Carolina State Museum of Natural science

West Jefferson, NC, United States

North Carolina State Museum of Natural science

West Jefferson, NC, United States
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McCartney M.A.,University of North Carolina at Wilmington | McCartney M.A.,University of Minnesota | Bogan A.E.,North Carolina State Museum of Natural science | Sommer K.M.,University of North Carolina at Wilmington | Wilbur A.E.,University of North Carolina at Wilmington
American Malacological Bulletin | Year: 2016

About 70% of freshwater mussel species in North America are threatened, endangered, or recently extinct. A large number of the surviving species are endemics. One hotspot for endemic diversity is the southeastern U.S.A. Lake Waccamaw in southeastern North Carolina contains two putative endemic unionids, Lampsilis fullerkati (Johnson, 1984) and Elliptio waccamawensis (Lea, 1863). We used multiple phylogenetic analyses to assess phylogenetic affinities and test the status of these named species. Mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene, cox1, and nad1 sequences were obtained from 109 individuals of the putative endemics and potentially related species from Lake Waccamaw, the Waccamaw River, and the Yadkin/Pee Dee, Little Pee Dee, and Lumber Rivers in the Pee Dee Drainage. In addition to the analysis of each individual gene region, a total evidence analysis, in which all three regions were combined, was conducted using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. All three genes were analyzed using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods to test the robustness of the phylogeny of the genus Elliptio (Rafinesque, 1819) and both methods produced consistent topologies with minor differences in the Elliptio "lance" clade. Results suggest that the status of the Lake Waccamaw putative endemics may need to be reconsidered. Lampsilis fullerkati is not phylogenetically distinct from L. radiata (Gmelin, 1791) from outside the lake, and Elliptio waccamawensis groups with and is not genetically distinguishable from E. congaraea (Lea, 1831) individuals from the Waccamaw River.

Verdu-Ricoy J.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Carranza S.,Institute Biologia Evolutiva | Salvador A.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Busack S.D.,North Carolina State Museum of Natural science | Diaz J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Amphibia Reptilia | Year: 2010

Relationships among Psammodromus algirus populations from the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa, including recently described P. jeanneae and P. manuelae, were estimated from mitochondrial DNA gene sequences. This enlarged data set confirmed the presence of two divergent eastern and western mitochondrial DNA lineages on the Iberian Peninsula, the distributions for which are separated by a narrow zone of contact across the centre of the Peninsula. Paratypes of P. jeanneae and topotypes of P. manuelae represent southern and northern clades of the western lineage, respectively, making P. algirus paraphyletic. This, together with the low level of allozymic and mitochondrial DNA substructuring within western populations, is not sufficient to retain P. jeanneae and P. manuelae as valid species, and we relegate them to the status of junior synonyms of P. algirus. © 2010 Brill Academic Publishers.

Bogan A.E.,North Carolina State Museum of Natural science | Weaver P.G.,North Carolina State Museum of Natural science
Nautilus | Year: 2012

In eastern North America, surface exposures of Triassic basins extend from Nova Scotia southwestward to South Carolina. This interrupted series of half-grabens resulted from early Mesozoic rifting of the supercontinent Pangaea. In south-central North Carolina, the Deep River basin is comprised of the Durham subbasin, the Colon cross-structure, the Sandford subbasin, the Pekin cross structure, and the Wadesboro subbasin. Deposits within the Durham subbasin are recognized as the Chatham Group, part of the Newark Supergroup and form part of a series informally designated as Lithofacies Association II. These strata are considered to be alternating fluvial and lacustrine sediments. Though research on the vertebrate fauna from this lithofacies has been ongoing for over a century, considerably less research, particularly in North Carolina, has been done on the lacustrine invertebrate fauna. Ongoing field work at a brick-clay quarry in the village of Genlee, Durham County, North Carolina, has yielded three distinct forms of Triassic freshwater bivalves, one is considered here to be of the order Unionoida and the others tentatively a mytiloid in shell outline and a sphaeriid in shell outline. The unionoid specimens are assigned to Triaslacus new genus and Triaslacus carolinesis new species and are tentatively assigned to the Unionidae. These new specimens are compared with specimens described as belonging to the unionoid families Unionidae, Hyriidae, and Mulleriidae [+Mycetopodidae] from Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. However, none of the North Carolina specimens exhibit the umbonal sculpture exhibited by the northeastern specimens. The North Carolina unionoid specimens lack any evidence of hinge development or umbonal sculpture. Non-unionoid bivalves are quite rare in these deposits. The bivalve fauna is found in association with ostracods of the genus Darwinula; clam shrimp, Euestheria, represented by carbonized impressions of the shells; and fish and plant remains. This freshwater environment is preserved in a mudstone or clayey siltstone sediments.

Tolley-Jordan L.,University of Alabama | Tolley-Jordan L.,Jacksonville State University | Huryn A.D.,University of Alabama | Bogan A.E.,North Carolina State Museum of Natural science
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems | Year: 2015

The highest worldwide diversity of snails in the family Pleuroceridae (Caenogastropoda) is found in the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, USA. Here 76 species of pleurocerids have been described and 31 species are now considered extinct due primarily to impoundments in the Alabama River Basin. Of the major basins, only the mainstem of the Cahaba River remains free-flowing and so provides a refuge for pleurocerid diversity. Using collections, descriptions, and museum vouchers, the impact of changing land-use on pleurocerid diversity was explored in the Cahaba River Basin. Decadal scale (10 to 20 years) and century scale (70 to100 years) changes in snail diversity within the Cahaba River were determined using information on species distributions based on historical (1880-1940) collections and from 1992, and 2005-2006 surveys. Before 1940, 20 species of pleurocerid snails were reported from the basin, but in 1992 and 2005-2006, only 15 species were recovered. Conversion of the lower portion of the Cahaba River Basin from forest to agriculture before 1940, followed by silviculture and severe downcutting of the channel from headcutting, may have caused the loss of these species. However, two species historically recorded in the basin are thought to be erroneous identifications and reflect the necessity of a complete taxonomic revision of this group. No basin-wide changes in species richness and composition were detected between 1992 and 2005. Declines in richness among several reaches, however, resulted in the population fragmentation of five species which were reflected in differences in mean richness at the catchment scale. A significant, negative relationship between richness and urban cover between surveys best explained species losses. Despite taxonomic difficulties, these results indicate that land-use conversion during the last century has had significant, adverse effects on pleurocerid diversity. Continued threats are expected given the projections of increasing human population density for the south-eastern USA which may lead to further land-use alterations and instream modifications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Raske M.,North Carolina State University | Raske M.,Animal Medical Center | Lewbart G.A.,North Carolina State University | Dombrowski D.S.,North Carolina State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2012

Ectothermic vertebrates are a diverse group of animals that rely on external sources to maintain a preferred body temperature. Amphibians and reptiles have a preferred optimal temperature zone that allows for optimal biological function. Physiologic processes in ectotherms are influenced by temperature; these animals have capabilities in which they make use of behavioral and physiologic mechanisms to thermoregulate. Core body, ambient air, body surface, and surface/water temperatures were obtained from six ectothermic species including one anuran, two snakes, two turtles, and one alligator. Clinically significant differences between core body temperature and ambient temperature were noted in the black rat snake, corn snake, and eastern box turtle. No significant differences were found between core body and ambient temperature for the American alligator, bullfrog, mata mata turtle, dead spotted turtle, or dead mole king snake. This study indicates some ectotherms are able to regulate their body temperatures independent of their environment. Body temperature of ectotherms is an important component that clinicians should consider when selecting and providing therapeutic care. Investigation of basic physiologic parameters (heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature) from a diverse population of healthy ectothermic vertebrates may provide baseline data for a systematic health care approach. Copyright © 2012 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Smith D.R.,U.S. Geological Survey | McRae S.E.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Augspurger T.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Ratcliffe J.A.,North Carolina Natural Heritage Program | And 3 more authors.
Freshwater Science | Year: 2015

We used a structured decision-making process to develop conservation strategies to increase persistence of Dwarf Wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) in North Carolina, USA, while accounting for uncertainty in management effectiveness and considering costs. Alternative conservation strategies were portfolios of management actions that differed by location of management actions on the landscape. Objectives of the conservation strategy were to maximize species persistence, maintain genetic diversity, maximize public support, and minimize management costs. We compared 4 conservation strategies: 1) the 'status quo' strategy represented current management, 2) the 'protect the best' strategy focused on protecting the best populations in the Tar River basin, 3) the 'expand the distribution' strategy focused on management of extant populations and establishment of new populations in the Neuse River basin, and 4) the 'hybrid' strategy combined elements of each strategy to balance conservation in the Tar and Neuse River basins. A population model informed requirements for population management, and experts projected performance of alternative strategies over a 20-y period. The optimal strategy depended on the relative value placed on competing objectives, which can vary among stakeholders. The protect the best and hybrid strategies were optimal across a wide range of relative values with 2 exceptions: 1) if minimizing management cost was of overriding concern, then status quo was optimal, or 2) if maximizing population persistence in the Neuse River basin was emphasized, then expand the distribution strategy was optimal. The optimal strategy was robust to uncertainty in management effectiveness. Overall, the structured decision process can help identify the most promising strategies for endangered species conservation that maximize conservation benefit given the constraint of limited funding. © 2015 by The Society for Freshwater Science.

Tedesco P.A.,French Natural History Museum | Bigorne R.,French Natural History Museum | Bogan A.E.,North Carolina State Museum of Natural science | Giam X.,Princeton University | And 3 more authors.
Conservation Biology | Year: 2014

Because both descriptions of species and modern human-driven extinctions started around the same time (i.e., eighteenth century), a logical expectation is that a large proportion of species may have gone extinct without ever having been recorded. Despite this evident and widely recognized assumption, the loss of undescribed species has never been estimated. We quantified this loss for several taxonomic groups and regions for which undescribed species extinctions are likely to have occurred. Across a wide range of taxonomic groups, we applied known extinction rates computed from recorded species losses to assumed exponential decay in the proportion of species remaining undiscovered. Because all previous modeling attempts to project total species richness implicitly assumed that undescribed species extinctions could be neglected, we also evaluated the effect of neglecting them. Finally, because we assumed constant description and extinction probabilities, we applied our model to simulated data that did not conform to this assumption. Actual species losses were severely underestimated by considering only known species extinctions. According to our estimates, the proportion of undiscovered extinct species over all extinctions ranged from 0.15 to 0.59, depending on the taxonomic group and the region considered. This means that recent extinctions may be up to twice as large as the number recorded. When species differed in their extinction or description probabilities, our model underestimated extinctions of undescribed species by up to 20%. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

Eads C.B.,North Carolina State University | Bringolf R.B.,University of Georgia | Greiner R.D.,North Carolina State University | Bogan A.E.,North Carolina State Museum of Natural science | Levine J.F.,North Carolina State University
American Malacological Bulletin | Year: 2010

Two laboratory trials were conducted to determine the required host fish for the Carolina heelsplitter (Lasmigona decorata (Lea, 1852)), an endangered freshwater mussel (Unionidae). The first trial used glochidia from a female collected from the Yadkin-Pee Dee River basin, and the second trial used the glochidia of an adult collected from the Catawba River basin. Two different techniques were utilized for glochidia extraction: flushing and serotonin-induced release. The first female tested (Yadkin-Pee Dee) packaged most of its glochidia attached to unfertilized eggs, and extraction of glochidia by flushing the marsupia with a syringe yielded few glochidia and caused extensive tearing of the gill tissue. In the second trial (Catawba) the female was immersed in 500 mg/L serotonin creatinine sulfate, and the glochidia were readily released without injury to the adult. Several species of minnows (Cyprinidae) from both basins served as hosts. Some sunfish species (Centrarchidae) supported transformation of a few juveniles, but differences in transformation success were observed between the two basins on these species.

Zheng W.,North Carolina State University | Schweitzer M.H.,North Carolina State Museum of Natural science
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

The preservation of microstructures consistent with soft tissues, cells, and other biological components in demineralized fragments of dinosaur bone tens of millions of years old was unexpected, and counter to current hypotheses of tissue, cellular, and molecular degradation. Although the morphological similarity of these tissues to extant counterparts was unmistakable, after at least 80 million years exposed to geochemical influences, morphological similarity is insufficient to support an endogenous source. To test this hypothesis, and to characterize these materials at a molecular level, we applied multiple independent chemical, molecular, and microscopic analyses to identify the presence of original components produced by the extinct organisms. Microscopic techniques included field emission scanning electron microscopy, analytical transmission electron microscopy, transmitted light microscopy (LM), and fluorescence microscopy (FM). The chemical and molecular techniques include enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot (immunoblot), and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. In situ analyses performed directly on tissues included immunohistochemistry and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The details of sample preparation and methodology are described in detail herein. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Johnson P.D.,Alabama Aquatic Biodiversity Center | Bogan A.E.,North Carolina State Museum of Natural science | Brown K.M.,Louisiana State University | Burkhead N.M.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 9 more authors.
Fisheries | Year: 2013

This is the first American Fisheries Society conservation assessment of freshwater gastropods (snails) from Canada and the United States by the Gastropod Subcommittee (Endangered Species Committee). This review covers 703 species representing 16 families and 93 genera, of which 67 species are considered extinct, or possibly extinct, 278 are endangered, 102 are threatened, 73 are vulnerable, 157 are currently stable, and 26 species have uncertain taxonomic status. Of the entire fauna, 74% of gastropods are imperiled (vulnerable, threatened, endangered) or extinct, which exceeds imperilment levels in fishes (39%) and crayfishes (48%) but is similar to that of mussels (72%). Comparison of modern to background extinction rates reveals that gastropods have the highest modern extinction rate yet observed, 9,539 times greater than background rates. Gastropods are highly susceptible to habitat loss and degradation, particularly narrow endemics restricted to a single spring or short stream reaches. Compilation of this review was hampered by a paucity of current distributional information and taxonomic uncertainties. Although research on several fronts including basic biology, physiology, conservation strategies, life history, and ecology are needed, systematics and curation of museum collections and databases coupled with comprehensive status surveys (geographic limits, threat identification) are priorities.

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