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Box Elder, NC, United States

Humphrey Jr. C.P.,East Carolina University | Deal N.E.,North Carolina State University | O'Driscoll M.A.,East Carolina University | Lindbo D.L.,North Carolina Cooperative Extension
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2010: Challenges of Change - Proceedings of the World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2010 | Year: 2010

On-site wastewater (septic) systems have often been implicated as a source of high nitrogen content in groundwater in Eastern North Carolina. At the national level, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pointed out the need for enhancing the knowledge of septic systems performance. This paper is part of a study that was designed to address that need. The objectives of this work were to determine if electrical resistivity mapping is an applicable technique for characterizing septic system effluent plumes in sandy soils and to investigate the links between septic system discharge, groundwater quality, and potential contributions to surface waters. Electrical resistivity surveys were completed on two sites that use septic systems in Washington, North Carolina. Plumes of low resistivity groundwater were identified at both sites. Orientation of the plumes matched closely with the direction of groundwater flow away from the septic systems as indicated by groundwater level data from piezometers. Preliminary data of samples taken from each septic tank showed total nitrogen concentrations between 46 and 48 mg/l, mostly in the forms of organic nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N). Also, preliminary data showed higher concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) and organic nitrogen in shallow groundwater samples adjacent to septic systems than in background samples. While dissolved nitrogen concentrations typically decreased as the plumes moved further away from the systems, elevated nitrogen concentrations were seen close to the estuary at one site. Future work will include septic tank and groundwater N-isotope sampling and installation of YSI sondes (automated NO3-N and NH4-N sensors), to gain more information on N-processing and the fate and transport of dissolved nitrogen in shallow coastal aquifers. © 2010 ASCE. Source


Church C.S.,North Carolina Cooperative Extension | Stinner R.E.,National Science Foundation | Buhler W.G.,North Carolina State University | Bradley L.K.,North Carolina State University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The Pesticide Environmental Stewardship website, http:// pesticidestewardship.org, was funded by the National Science Foundation Center for Integrated Pest Management to summarize general principles of pesticide stewardship and to direct users to key resources (including state-specific regulations) by stewardship topic. There are eleven topic areas including recordkeeping, disposal, drift, surface and groundwater, wildlife and pollinators, storage, handling containers, spills, calibration, integrated pest management, and terms and acronyms. Initially the site targeted commercial pesticide applicators but a review of the environmental impacts of pesticide mismanagement identified the importance of expanding the site to target homeowners as well. Prior to enhancing the website a national survey of Cooperative Extension agents was conducted to identify the pesticide related questions they receive from homeowners most frequently, the difficulty of obtaining information on those topics, as well as their recommendations for most effective strategies for presenting the information to homeowners. In addition, Extension agents were asked to identify their primary concerns related to homeowner pesticide applications. The homeowner section of the website was developed based on the results of the surveys. Source


Shah S.B.,North Carolina State University | Grimes J.L.,North Carolina State University | Oviedo-Rondon E.O.,North Carolina State University | Westerman P.W.,North Carolina State University | Campeau D.,North Carolina Cooperative Extension
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2013

Broiler production has the potential to cause water and air pollution. Acidifiers such as sodium bisulfate (SBS) can reduce ammonia (NH3) emissions from broiler houses; NH3 is an important air pollutant that also affects bird health. Due to their longer grow-outs, roasters may require higher acidifier application rates to prevent unhealthy NH3 levels during the flock than ordinary broilers. Changes in NH3 emission with acidifier use may affect the partitioning of the input nitrogen (N) among the different N output pathways. Accounting for these output pathways through N mass balance provides a complete picture of N as it cycles through the roaster house. In a 2-yr study involving 9 flocks of roasters, 4 levels of SBS were applied to the litter in commercial roaster houses. Whereas the control treatment received up to 0.49 kg/ m2 to the brood chamber, the high, medium, and low treatments received up to 1.46, 0.73, and 0.49 kg/m2, respectively, to the whole house. Ammonia-N emission decreased and N removed in cake and litter increased with SBS application rate. Nitrogen output components were averaged over the 4 treatments and expressed as percent of total N input or per unit mass of live weight (LW). Ammonia-N emission during grow-out, bird N exported, and cake and litter N removed accounted for 17.3% or 11.2 g/kg of LW, 38.9% or 25.1 g/kg of LW, and 22.4% or 14.4 g/kg of LW, respectively. We accounted for 79.1% of the total N inputs, with NH3-N losses during layout probably constituting the bulk of the unaccounted N. In addition to uncertainties in measurements of inputs and outputs, other factors that limited the ability to close the N mass balance were exclusion of feathers during cake and litter sampling, soil N leaching, and nitrous oxide emissions. © 2013 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Source


Oviedo-Rondon E.O.,North Carolina State University | Shah S.B.,North Carolina State University | Grimes J.L.,North Carolina State University | Westerman P.W.,North Carolina State University | Campeau D.,North Carolina Cooperative Extension
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2013

The reutilization of litter is currently a common practice in broiler production due to several environmental and economic factors. The application of litter amendments in broiler houses is a popular practice that can reduce ammonia emissions from recycled litter by converting them to nonvolatile ammonium. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is one of the acidifiers frequently used in broiler houses. Broilers raised to 9 wk may require higher acidifier application rates to prevent unhealthy NH3 levels throughout the flock than broilers raised to smaller sizes. A study with 6 flocks of roasters was conducted under commercial conditions to evaluate 4 levels of SBS. In a farm with 8 houses, 4 treatments were evaluated. In the control treatment 0.49 kg/m2 of SBS was applied to the brood chamber, whereas the low, medium, and high treatments received 0.49, 0.73, and 1.46 kg/m2, respectively, in the whole house. Data were obtained as the average of 2 houses with approximately 21,000 broilers per house in each of the 6 flocks evaluated. Results indicated no significant differences due to treatments on final average BW, FCR, mortality, or the majority of condemnation parameters. The significant reductions in NH3 levels observed in the whole flock across all 6 flocks receiving SBS treatments did not significantly improve broiler live performance or affect condemnations at the processing plant. © 2013 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Source


Shah S.B.,North Carolina State University | Westerman P.W.,North Carolina State University | Grimes J.L.,North Carolina State University | Oviedo-Rondon E.O.,North Carolina State University | Campeau D.,North Carolina Cooperative Extension
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2013

High ammonia levels in broiler houses can reduce bird performance. Broiler producers commonly use acidifiers to reduce ammonia build-up. In addition to improving broiler performance, acidifiers can also provide other ancillary benefits such as reducing propane and electricity use and increasing cake (caked litter) N content. In this 2-yr study involving 9 flocks, 4 levels of an acidifier (sodium bisulfate) were applied to commercial roaster houses in eastern North Carolina. The control treatment had a sodium bisulfate application rate of up to 0.1 lb/ft2 to the brood chamber, whereas the high, medium, and low treatments had application rates of up to 0.3, 0.15, and 0.1 lb/ft2, respectively, to the whole house. No treatment effect was observed on propane or electricity use. However, compared with published studies involving smaller broilers, roasters required lesser amounts of propane and electricity. Linear regressions of propane and electricity use as a function of ambient temperature may help with decision making in roaster production. Brooding accounted for 88% of propane consumption. Reduced pH in the high treatment compared with the other treatments led to significantly higher ammonium concentration in the cake. © 2013 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Source

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