North Bengal Agricultural University
West Bengal, India

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Datta D.,Jadavpur University | Deb S.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2017

The mangrove stands in and around the densely populated rural areas of Indian Sunderbans are experiencing intense human induced stresses in the forms of widespread small-scale logging, shrimp monoculture, riverside prawn-seed and crab catching, forest trespassing, oil-spill etc. Here, restoration of degraded sites and management of remaining mangroves often remain unsuccessful in serving the dual purposes of biodiversity conservation and sustainable livelihood generation. In this context, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of different management scenarios on vegetation structure and composition as well as soil physico-chemical properties along salinity gradients of two mangrove sites located at village-fringe areas of Sunderbans. Transect cum quadrant-based analyses of vegetation and soil samples were adopted for this purpose in consultation with local community members. The results showed that the mangrove site jointly managed by a non-governmental organization and local forest dependents was performing noticeably better than the other site under surveillance of the State Forest Department. Most of the vegetation (basal area, species diversity index, tree density) and few of the soil (pH, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable Na%, soil total C, and organic C stocks) parameters were in significantly superior conditions in the first site than the later in terms of ecological health (p < 0.01). Soil salinity exhibited significantly negative correlations with the vegetation characteristics of both sites from riverbank towards inland. While the first site represented the growth of a multi-layered canopy with mixed species association, the later site was characterized by mono-specific dominance of the Avicennia varieties primarily due to indiscriminate exploitative activities. Thus, passive restoration or self-recovery of mangroves was considered inadequate in these circumstances for regaining natural ecological functionality. Alternatively, an active human intervention engaging the local forest dependents in decision-making and implementation initiatives regarding recognition of actual causes of degradation, zone-wise selection of species, fixation of gestation period, protection, and equitable usufruct sharing was recommended as the prerequisite towards successful restoration of these fragile mangrove ecosystems. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Sharma A.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2012

The paper explored the Traditional knowledge of rural women on processing of Shotti (Curcuma angustifolia; Family- Zingiberaceae) - a rhizome based ethnic weaning food, its collection patterns and temporal availability in the Uttar Dinajpur district of West Bengal, India. The information on preparation of weaning food and medicinal uses is based on the exhaustive interviews with local healers, practicing traditional system of medicine and elderly rural women. This knowledge is mainly confined to native people of North Bengal especially to the women of Rajbansi ethnic group. Details of the plant, parts used, method of preparation, dosage and mode of administration have been reported.

Sarkar R.,North Bengal Agricultural University | Dutta S.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2012

A conceptual model for rapid lateral subsurface flow under extreme storm events in wet vegetated hillslopes with a high preferential flow network is presented. The kinematic form of Darcy's equation and a continuity equation with a sink term to account for lateral preferential flow are used to formulate a subsurface flow equation. The resulting equation is numerically solved using a finite difference approximation. The physical parameters of the model are derived from field experiments conducted in a hillslope in the Brahmaputra River basin of India. Apart from capturing the rapid buildup and recession of a saturated profile in the hillslope, the model gives an indication of hydrologically active lateral macroporosity and its dependency on the rate of recharge. The computed flow hydrographs showed that for the hillslope under investigation, the rapid subsurface storm response is primarily controlled by lateral preferential flow. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Dey A.,North Bengal Agricultural University | De P.S.,University of Burdwan
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

This study was conducted to examine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) from Ficus bengalensis leaves on the feed utilization, milk production and health status of crossbred cows. Eighteen crossbred dairy cows at their second and mid lactation (avg. BW 351.6±10.6 kg) were randomly divided into two groups of nine each in a completely randomized block design and fed two iso-nitrogenous supplements formulated to contain 0% and 1.5% CT through dried and ground leaves of Ficus bengalensis. The diets were designated as CON and FBLM, respectively and fed to cows with a basal diet of rice straw to meet requirements for maintenance and milk production. The daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) increased due to supplementation of FBLM diet. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was also significantly (p<0.01) higher due to increased (p<0.05) milk fat in cows under diet FBLM as compared to CON. The inclusion of CT at 1.5% in the supplement did not interfere with the feed intake or digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF by lactating cows. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values of the composite diets were comparable between the groups. The blood biochemical parameters remained unaltered except significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum urea concentration in cows fed FBLM diet. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in cows supplemented with condensed tannins. The total thiol group (T-SH) was found to be higher with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cows of FBLM group. The cost of feeding per kg milk production was also reduced due to supplementation of Ficus bengalensis leaves. Therefore, a perceptible positive impact was evident on milk production and antioxidant status in crossbred cows during mid-lactation given supplement containing 1.5% CT through Ficus bengalensis leaves. Copyright © 2014 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.

Bhowmick N.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

In the northern parts of West Bengal there is a good scope of growing of some minor, underexploited fruit crops along with the major fruit crops. Jalpai (Indian olive), latka (Burmese grape) and Panial (Indian plum/coffee plum) are three important minor fruit crops of this region. These fruits are mainly grown as homestead crops with no or very few management practices. Jalpai is most important among these minor fruit crops and found frequently in homestead cultivation. Jalpai (Elaeocarpus floribundus) belongs to the family Elaeocarpaceae and is a medium to tall tree. Flowers appear during April-May and fruits mature for harvest in August to October. Fruits are greenish in colour, single seeded, the shape resembles olive fruit. Matured jalpai fruits are used mainly for the preparation of pickles and chutney. Latka (Baccaurea sapida) belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae and is an evergreen, short to medium height plant. Sub-acid latka fruit is consumed fresh locally. The time of flowering is March-April and fruits are available during the rainy season, 3-4 months after flowering. Matured latka fruits are yellow or yellowish brown in colour. Panial (Flacourtia jangomas) belongs to the family Flacourtiaceae and is a short to medium tree having spines in the young branches. Flowers appear during April-May and fruits are harvested in August-September. A typical local practice is that after harvesting, the matured panial fruits are gently pressed in between the palms of both hand before fresh consumption. Ripe fruits are brown or brown red in colour. Panial fruits have good potential for preparation of jam.

Pati R.,North Bengal Agricultural University | Mukhopadhyay D.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science | Year: 2011

The sporadic distribution of DTPA-extractable cationic micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) in different soil layers under tarai situations of West Bengal was governed by the nature of the soil acidity. Eleven locations under three series of the order Entisols were surveyed to explore the availability of the cations under varying soil conditions and reflections thereof, if any, on the dominant forms of acidity in soils. The soils were acidic in reaction having wide variations in electrical conductivity (EC 0.01-0.21 dS m-1), cation exchange capacity (CEC 1.7-7.9cmol(p+)kg-1), (Ca2++Mg2+ 0.40-2.75cmol(p+) kg-1), organic carbon (4.32-17.52g kg-1), available phosphorus (0.89-59.4mg kg-1) and nitrogen (21.5-240kg ha-1). A gradual decrease in the extractable micronutrients with the soil depths was observed in general. Soil pH and the organic carbon made major contributions towards the variation in the extractable cations. The exchangeable Al and total acidity contributed to the variation in extractable Fe, Mn and Cu, while all forms of acidity, except non-exchangeable form, accounted for the availability of Zn. The different forms of acidity of the soils were quite comparable, although, the contribution of exchangeable acidity to the total potential acidity was low in all the soils. Hence, the availability of the cationic micronutrients varied with the soil depth and forms of acidity under the tarai situations.

Rahaman S.,North Bengal Agricultural University | Sinha A.C.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Paddy and Water Environment | Year: 2013

Arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater has been widely used in agricultural purposes especially for summer rice cultivation in South East Asia. Therefore, the present experiments were carried out at low (diara) and medium land topo sequences with the eight water regimes to reduce the As accumulation in summer rice (Oryza sativa L.). Experimental results revealed that the intermittent ponding of 2-4 days after disappearance (DAD) were significantly reduced the As accumulation in root, stem, leaves, flag leaf, husk, and grain (21. 86-31. 78, 23. 55-37. 20, 14. 83-30. 93, 23. 53-31. 19, 21. 33-28. 19, and 22. 98-25. 37 %, respectively), which was followed by aerobic rice (21. 34-22. 08, 22. 49-30. 72, 12. 21-23. 02, 22. 06-27. 52, 20. 14-23. 94, and 22. 12-22. 30 %, respectively), and saturation of top soil (17. 43-17. 85, 21. 91-28. 01, 10. 76-20. 27, 20. 59-24. 77, 18. 96-23. 14, and 20. 75-21. 15 %, respectively) as compared to continuous ponding or farmer practice, where the As accumulation in root: 13. 43-17. 20 mg/kg; stem: 8. 64-10. 36 mg/kg; leaves: 2. 91-3. 44 mg/kg; flag leaf: 0. 68-1. 09 mg/kg; husk: 1. 88-2. 11 mg/kg; and grain: 0. 52-0. 67 mg/kg. However, aerobic rice and saturation of top soil recorded significantly higher grain yield at diara land (7,104-7,141 kg/ha) and only in saturation of top soil at medium land topo sequence (6,654-6,717 kg/ha). The correlation study showed the positive correlation in between grain As and root, straw, husk As, grain Zn, and grain Fe (R2 = 0. 893-0. 976, p > 0. 01), but the negative correlation with the grain P, soil P, soil Fe, and soil Zn (R2 = 0. 633-0. 841, p > 0. 01). About 3. 904-6. 063 kg/ha of As was added on the surface soil by the contaminated groundwater and most of the added As was accumulated and remained on the top soil (0-30 cm). © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Mukherjee D.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2012

A field experiment was conducted during the rabi 2008-09 and 2009-2010 at the Regional Research Station (Hill Zone) of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalimpong (1250 m amsl), to elucidate the effect of different sowing dates and cultivars on yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum (L.) emend Fiori & Paol.). The experiment was conducted in split plot design with 3 replications with treatments comprising five dates of sowing viz. Nov. 1, Nov. 15, Nov. 30, Dec. 15 and Dec. 30 in main plots and 6 different wheat cultivar viz. 'HS 473', HPW 236, 'VL 875', 'HS 365', 'VL 832', 'PBW 343' and 'SKW 196' in sub-plots. Sowing on November 15, significantly influenced most yield attributes and was at par with November 30 sowing, but significantly superior to later sowings. The highest grain yield was obtained with November 15 sowing (2.79 and 2.49 t/ha), which was at par with November 30, and November 1 sowings in first year and in second year this was statistically similar with all date of sowing except extreme late sown condition. Sowing in mid November gave 14.9 and 26.2% more grain yield over December 30 sowing. Amongst the cultivars, 'HS 473' was found to be best and gave significantly more grain yield than 'HS 365' (2.93 and 2.74 t/ha) and was at par with 'VL 875' (2.86 and 2.50 t/ha) and 'PBW 343' (2.89 and 2.61 t/ha). More biomass production was recorded with early November 15 sowing, which was at par with November 30 sowing. Within the cultivars, maximum biomass production was recorded with 'HS 473' (7.78 and 7.28 t/ha) and was statistically at par with 'VL 875', "SKW 196" and 'PBW 343'. Uptake of NPK was most with 'PBW 343', which was at par with 'HS 473'. Maximum net return (24,926 and 23,192/ha, respectively) recorded with November 15 sowing, followed by November 30 sowing. This treatment also recorded higher B: C ratio (2.11 and 2.03, respectively). Amongst cultivars, maximum net return ( 26,986 and 24,368/ha) and B: C ratio (2.21 and 2.08) was recorded with cultivar 'HS 473' followed by 'PBW 343' and "SKW 196".

Mukherjee D.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2010

The productivity, profitability and sustainable yield index were higher under blackgram - wheat and maize - wheat cropping sequence than the traditional rice - wheat sequence. Further, overall nutrient mining by this system was quite low compared to other sequences which are practiced in this region.

Chatterjee R.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

Lettuce is a high value salad vegetable rich in minerals, vitamins and antioxidants.With the increasing awareness on ill effect of chemicals on human health and environment, the demand for residue free organic lettuce is increased sharply. Traditionally farmers are using farmyard manure (FYM) as source of nutrients for organic lettuce cultivation. But higher cost and scarcity of the animal manure forcing the farmers to search alternate nutrient source for organic lettuce cultivation. Keeping the fact in mind an experiment was carried out to find out an alternate source of farmyard manure or substituted a portion to reduce the pressure on sole farmyard manure. The inputs namely farmyard manure and vermicompost were used sole as well as in combination of Azotobacter and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria containing biofertlizer (Azophos). Six numbers of treatments were laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with 4 replications. The seedlings of head type lettuce variety Great Lakes were transplanted in mid November for two years in the plot size of 3 m x 3 m. The pooled results revealed that all the yield attributing characters were influenced by treatments variation and the treatment combination comprised of FYM (10 t ha-1) and vermicompost (2.5 t ha-1) inoculated with biofertilizer recorded the maximum number of leaves (18.42 plant-1) and chlorophyll content (39 SPAD value) and fresh weight of head (334 g plant-1). Application of vermicompost (5 t ha-1) inoculated with Azophos emerged as second best combination for most of the yield and yield attributing traits for organic lettuce production.

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