North Bengal Agricultural University
West Bengal, India
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Mondal H.A.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Journal of Plant Biology | Year: 2017

‘Effectors’ are proteins and/or small molecules that originated from aphid saliva gland and its secretion is initiated due to interaction between host and insect. The effectors have the ability to manipulate the host cell structure as well as function similar to pathogen’s effectors. Like pathogen’s effectors, aphid effectors suppress the hosts’ defense responses as well as hosts’ defense induction or both. In the susceptible interaction with the host, aphid effectors alter plant processes that contribute to the establishment of compatibility that promotes aphid proliferation. In the susceptible reaction with the host, aphid effectors contribute to the successful salivation and sustainability of the sieve element sap ingestion that have promoting role in more aphid proliferation. In the resistant interaction with the host, aphid effectors are recognized by the typical plant receptors and elicit the induction the effective defense response. As a result, aphid proliferation is reduced due to reduced compatibility establishment in the resistant host. This review focuses on the exciting progress in aphid effector biology that insights new perspective in the molecular basis of plant–aphid interactions. © 2017, Korean Society of Plant Biologists and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Roy S.S.,North Bengal Agricultural University | Deb K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
International Journal of Geomechanics | Year: 2017

In the present study, the bearing capacity of rectangular footings resting on multilayer geosynthetic-reinforced granular fill overlying soft soil is investigated. Five different sizes of model footings are chosen in such a way that the aspect ratio of the footings is varied as 1.0 (square), 1.5 (rectangular), and 2.0 (rectangular). The effectiveness of multilayer reinforcement is assessed by comparing the bearing capacity improvement factor, settlement reduction factor, and load-spread angle. The variations of these factors with the aspect ratio of the footings are also studied. The optimum value of the thickness of granular fill over soft soil and sizes of the reinforcement as obtained for single-layer reinforcement placed at the granular fill-clay interface are selected for the entire test program. In some of the model tests, the reinforcement layers are instrumented with strain gauges to study the strain distribution along the reinforcement layers. The test results show that the improvement factor and settlement reduction increase with a decrease in the aspect ratio of the footing, and the increment is more for the multilayer-reinforced case (N>1). However, the increment is more for the constant width case than with the constant length case of the footing. The loadspread angle increases with an increase of the L/B ratio of the rectangular footings, and the rate of increment decreases due to an increase in the number of reinforcement. An analytical solution is also proposed to estimate the ultimate bearing capacity of rectangular footings with various aspect ratios resting on the multilayer geosynthetic-reinforced granular fill of limited thickness underlain by soft soil. The predictions of the bearing capacity made by the developed model are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. © 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Sharma A.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2012

The paper explored the Traditional knowledge of rural women on processing of Shotti (Curcuma angustifolia; Family- Zingiberaceae) - a rhizome based ethnic weaning food, its collection patterns and temporal availability in the Uttar Dinajpur district of West Bengal, India. The information on preparation of weaning food and medicinal uses is based on the exhaustive interviews with local healers, practicing traditional system of medicine and elderly rural women. This knowledge is mainly confined to native people of North Bengal especially to the women of Rajbansi ethnic group. Details of the plant, parts used, method of preparation, dosage and mode of administration have been reported.

Sarkar R.,North Bengal Agricultural University | Dutta S.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2012

A conceptual model for rapid lateral subsurface flow under extreme storm events in wet vegetated hillslopes with a high preferential flow network is presented. The kinematic form of Darcy's equation and a continuity equation with a sink term to account for lateral preferential flow are used to formulate a subsurface flow equation. The resulting equation is numerically solved using a finite difference approximation. The physical parameters of the model are derived from field experiments conducted in a hillslope in the Brahmaputra River basin of India. Apart from capturing the rapid buildup and recession of a saturated profile in the hillslope, the model gives an indication of hydrologically active lateral macroporosity and its dependency on the rate of recharge. The computed flow hydrographs showed that for the hillslope under investigation, the rapid subsurface storm response is primarily controlled by lateral preferential flow. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Dey A.,North Bengal Agricultural University | De P.S.,University of Burdwan
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

This study was conducted to examine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) from Ficus bengalensis leaves on the feed utilization, milk production and health status of crossbred cows. Eighteen crossbred dairy cows at their second and mid lactation (avg. BW 351.6±10.6 kg) were randomly divided into two groups of nine each in a completely randomized block design and fed two iso-nitrogenous supplements formulated to contain 0% and 1.5% CT through dried and ground leaves of Ficus bengalensis. The diets were designated as CON and FBLM, respectively and fed to cows with a basal diet of rice straw to meet requirements for maintenance and milk production. The daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) increased due to supplementation of FBLM diet. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was also significantly (p<0.01) higher due to increased (p<0.05) milk fat in cows under diet FBLM as compared to CON. The inclusion of CT at 1.5% in the supplement did not interfere with the feed intake or digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF by lactating cows. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values of the composite diets were comparable between the groups. The blood biochemical parameters remained unaltered except significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum urea concentration in cows fed FBLM diet. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in cows supplemented with condensed tannins. The total thiol group (T-SH) was found to be higher with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cows of FBLM group. The cost of feeding per kg milk production was also reduced due to supplementation of Ficus bengalensis leaves. Therefore, a perceptible positive impact was evident on milk production and antioxidant status in crossbred cows during mid-lactation given supplement containing 1.5% CT through Ficus bengalensis leaves. Copyright © 2014 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.

Bhowmick N.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

In the northern parts of West Bengal there is a good scope of growing of some minor, underexploited fruit crops along with the major fruit crops. Jalpai (Indian olive), latka (Burmese grape) and Panial (Indian plum/coffee plum) are three important minor fruit crops of this region. These fruits are mainly grown as homestead crops with no or very few management practices. Jalpai is most important among these minor fruit crops and found frequently in homestead cultivation. Jalpai (Elaeocarpus floribundus) belongs to the family Elaeocarpaceae and is a medium to tall tree. Flowers appear during April-May and fruits mature for harvest in August to October. Fruits are greenish in colour, single seeded, the shape resembles olive fruit. Matured jalpai fruits are used mainly for the preparation of pickles and chutney. Latka (Baccaurea sapida) belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae and is an evergreen, short to medium height plant. Sub-acid latka fruit is consumed fresh locally. The time of flowering is March-April and fruits are available during the rainy season, 3-4 months after flowering. Matured latka fruits are yellow or yellowish brown in colour. Panial (Flacourtia jangomas) belongs to the family Flacourtiaceae and is a short to medium tree having spines in the young branches. Flowers appear during April-May and fruits are harvested in August-September. A typical local practice is that after harvesting, the matured panial fruits are gently pressed in between the palms of both hand before fresh consumption. Ripe fruits are brown or brown red in colour. Panial fruits have good potential for preparation of jam.

Rahaman S.,North Bengal Agricultural University | Sinha A.C.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Paddy and Water Environment | Year: 2013

Arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater has been widely used in agricultural purposes especially for summer rice cultivation in South East Asia. Therefore, the present experiments were carried out at low (diara) and medium land topo sequences with the eight water regimes to reduce the As accumulation in summer rice (Oryza sativa L.). Experimental results revealed that the intermittent ponding of 2-4 days after disappearance (DAD) were significantly reduced the As accumulation in root, stem, leaves, flag leaf, husk, and grain (21. 86-31. 78, 23. 55-37. 20, 14. 83-30. 93, 23. 53-31. 19, 21. 33-28. 19, and 22. 98-25. 37 %, respectively), which was followed by aerobic rice (21. 34-22. 08, 22. 49-30. 72, 12. 21-23. 02, 22. 06-27. 52, 20. 14-23. 94, and 22. 12-22. 30 %, respectively), and saturation of top soil (17. 43-17. 85, 21. 91-28. 01, 10. 76-20. 27, 20. 59-24. 77, 18. 96-23. 14, and 20. 75-21. 15 %, respectively) as compared to continuous ponding or farmer practice, where the As accumulation in root: 13. 43-17. 20 mg/kg; stem: 8. 64-10. 36 mg/kg; leaves: 2. 91-3. 44 mg/kg; flag leaf: 0. 68-1. 09 mg/kg; husk: 1. 88-2. 11 mg/kg; and grain: 0. 52-0. 67 mg/kg. However, aerobic rice and saturation of top soil recorded significantly higher grain yield at diara land (7,104-7,141 kg/ha) and only in saturation of top soil at medium land topo sequence (6,654-6,717 kg/ha). The correlation study showed the positive correlation in between grain As and root, straw, husk As, grain Zn, and grain Fe (R2 = 0. 893-0. 976, p > 0. 01), but the negative correlation with the grain P, soil P, soil Fe, and soil Zn (R2 = 0. 633-0. 841, p > 0. 01). About 3. 904-6. 063 kg/ha of As was added on the surface soil by the contaminated groundwater and most of the added As was accumulated and remained on the top soil (0-30 cm). © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Mukherjee D.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2012

A field experiment was conducted during the rabi 2008-09 and 2009-2010 at the Regional Research Station (Hill Zone) of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalimpong (1250 m amsl), to elucidate the effect of different sowing dates and cultivars on yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum (L.) emend Fiori & Paol.). The experiment was conducted in split plot design with 3 replications with treatments comprising five dates of sowing viz. Nov. 1, Nov. 15, Nov. 30, Dec. 15 and Dec. 30 in main plots and 6 different wheat cultivar viz. 'HS 473', HPW 236, 'VL 875', 'HS 365', 'VL 832', 'PBW 343' and 'SKW 196' in sub-plots. Sowing on November 15, significantly influenced most yield attributes and was at par with November 30 sowing, but significantly superior to later sowings. The highest grain yield was obtained with November 15 sowing (2.79 and 2.49 t/ha), which was at par with November 30, and November 1 sowings in first year and in second year this was statistically similar with all date of sowing except extreme late sown condition. Sowing in mid November gave 14.9 and 26.2% more grain yield over December 30 sowing. Amongst the cultivars, 'HS 473' was found to be best and gave significantly more grain yield than 'HS 365' (2.93 and 2.74 t/ha) and was at par with 'VL 875' (2.86 and 2.50 t/ha) and 'PBW 343' (2.89 and 2.61 t/ha). More biomass production was recorded with early November 15 sowing, which was at par with November 30 sowing. Within the cultivars, maximum biomass production was recorded with 'HS 473' (7.78 and 7.28 t/ha) and was statistically at par with 'VL 875', "SKW 196" and 'PBW 343'. Uptake of NPK was most with 'PBW 343', which was at par with 'HS 473'. Maximum net return (24,926 and 23,192/ha, respectively) recorded with November 15 sowing, followed by November 30 sowing. This treatment also recorded higher B: C ratio (2.11 and 2.03, respectively). Amongst cultivars, maximum net return ( 26,986 and 24,368/ha) and B: C ratio (2.21 and 2.08) was recorded with cultivar 'HS 473' followed by 'PBW 343' and "SKW 196".

Mukherjee D.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2010

The productivity, profitability and sustainable yield index were higher under blackgram - wheat and maize - wheat cropping sequence than the traditional rice - wheat sequence. Further, overall nutrient mining by this system was quite low compared to other sequences which are practiced in this region.

Chatterjee R.,North Bengal Agricultural University
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

Lettuce is a high value salad vegetable rich in minerals, vitamins and antioxidants.With the increasing awareness on ill effect of chemicals on human health and environment, the demand for residue free organic lettuce is increased sharply. Traditionally farmers are using farmyard manure (FYM) as source of nutrients for organic lettuce cultivation. But higher cost and scarcity of the animal manure forcing the farmers to search alternate nutrient source for organic lettuce cultivation. Keeping the fact in mind an experiment was carried out to find out an alternate source of farmyard manure or substituted a portion to reduce the pressure on sole farmyard manure. The inputs namely farmyard manure and vermicompost were used sole as well as in combination of Azotobacter and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria containing biofertlizer (Azophos). Six numbers of treatments were laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with 4 replications. The seedlings of head type lettuce variety Great Lakes were transplanted in mid November for two years in the plot size of 3 m x 3 m. The pooled results revealed that all the yield attributing characters were influenced by treatments variation and the treatment combination comprised of FYM (10 t ha-1) and vermicompost (2.5 t ha-1) inoculated with biofertilizer recorded the maximum number of leaves (18.42 plant-1) and chlorophyll content (39 SPAD value) and fresh weight of head (334 g plant-1). Application of vermicompost (5 t ha-1) inoculated with Azophos emerged as second best combination for most of the yield and yield attributing traits for organic lettuce production.

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