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Koda J.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Koda J.,California Institute of Technology | Sawada T.,Joint ALMA Office | Sawada T.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | And 9 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2011

We report the CO(J = 1-0) observations of the Whirlpool Galaxy M51 using both the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) and the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (NRO45). We describe a procedure for the combination of interferometer and single-dish data. In particular, we discuss (1) the joint imaging and deconvolution of heterogeneous data, (2) the weighting scheme based on the root-mean-square (rms) noise in the maps, (3) the sensitivity and uv coverage requirements, and (4) the flux recovery of a combined map. We generate visibilities from the single-dish map and calculate the noise of each visibility based on the rms noise. Our weighting scheme, though it is applied to discrete visibilities in this paper, should be applicable to grids in uv space, and this scheme may advance in future software development. For a realistic amount of observing time, the sensitivities of the NRO45 and CARMA visibility data sets are best matched by using the single-dish baselines only up to 4-6 kλ (about 1/4-1/3 of the dish diameter). The synthesized beam size is determined to conserve the flux between the synthesized beam and convolution beam. The superior uv coverage provided by the combination of CARMA long baseline data with 15 antennas and NRO45 short spacing data results in the high image fidelity, which is evidenced by the excellent overlap between even the faint CO emission and dust lanes in an optical Hubble Space Telescope image and polycyclicaromatichydrocarbon emission in a Spitzer 8 μm image. The total molecular gas masses of NGC 5194 and 5195 (d = 8.2 Mpc) are 4.9 × 10 9 M ⊙ and 7.8 × 107 M ⊙, respectively, assuming the CO-to-H2 conversion factor of X CO = 1.8 × 1020 cm-2(K km s-1)-1. The presented images are an indication of the millimeter-wave images that will become standard in the next decade with CARMA and NRO45, and the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Wootten A.,North American Science Center
Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union | Year: 2012

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), and the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) have recently begun probing the Universe. Both provide the largest collecting area available at locations on a high dry site, endowing them with unparalleled potential for sensitive spectral line observations. Over the next few years, these telescopes will be joined by other telescopes to provide advances in maser science, including NOEMA and the LMT. Other instruments of note for maser science which may commence construction include the North American Array, the CCAT, and an enlarged worldwide VLB network outfitted to operate into the millimeter wavelength regime. Copyright © International Astronomical Union 2012. Source

Fiolet N.,CNRS Paris Institute of Astrophysics | Omont A.,CNRS Paris Institute of Astrophysics | Lagache G.,University Paris - Sud | Lagache G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 17 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

Context. Spitzer's wide-field surveys and followup capabilities have allowed a new breakthrough in mid-IR spectroscopy up to redshifts ≥2, especially for 24 μm detected sources. Aims. We want to study the mid-infrared properties and the starburst and AGN contributions, of 24 μm sources at z ∼ 2, through analysis of mid-infrared spectra combined with millimeter, radio, and infrared photometry. Mid-infrared spectroscopy allows us to recover accurate redshifts. Methods. A complete sample of 16 Spitzer-selected sources (ULIRGs) believed to be starbursts at z ∼ 2 (5.8 μm-peakers) was selected in the (0.5 deg2) J1064+56 SWIRE Lockman Hole field (Lockman-North). These sources have S24 μm< 0.5 mJy, a stellar emission peak redshifted to 5.8 μm, and r′Vega < 23. The entire sample was observed with the low resolution units of the Spitzer/IRS infrared spectrograph. These sources have 1.2 mm observations with IRAM 30 m/MAMBO and very deep 20 cm observations from the VLA. Nine of our sources also benefit from 350 μm observation and detection from CSO/SHARC-II. All these data were jointly analyzed. Results. The entire sample shows good quality IRS spectra dominated by strong PAH features. The main PAH features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm have high S/N average luminosities of 2.90 ± 0.31, 10.38 ± 1.09, 3.62 ± 0.27, and 2.29 ± 0.26 × 10 10 L, respectively. Thanks to their PAH spectra, we derived accurate redshifts spanning from 1.750 to 2.284. The average of these redshifts is 2.017 ± 0.038. This result confirms that the selection criteria of 5.8 μm-peakers associated with a strong detection at 24 μm are reliable to select sources at z ∼ 2. We have analyzed the different correlations between PAH emission and infrared, millimeter, and radio emissions. Practically all our sources are strongly dominated by starburst emission, with only one source showing an important AGN contribution. We have also defined two subsamples based on the equivalent width at 7.7 μm to investigate AGN contributions. Conclusions. Our sample contains strong starbursts and represents a particularly 24 μm-bright class of SMGs. The very good correlation between PAH and far-IR luminosities is now confirmed in high-z starburst ULIRGs. These sources show a small AGN contribution to the mid-IR, around ∼20% or less in most cases. © 2010 ESO. Source

Lidman C.,Australian Astronomical Observatory | Suherli J.,Australian Astronomical Observatory | Suherli J.,Bandung Institute of Technology | Muzzin A.,Leiden University | And 17 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2012

Using new and published data, we construct a sample of 160 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) spanning the redshift interval 0.03 < z < 1.63. We use this sample, which covers 70 per cent of the history of the universe, to measure the growth in the stellar mass of BCGs after correcting for the correlation between the stellar mass of the BCG and the mass of the cluster in which it lives. We find that the stellar mass of BCGs increases by a factor of 1.8 ± 0.3 between z = 0.9 and z = 0.2. Compared to earlier works, our result is closer to the predictions of semi-analytic models. However, BCGs at z = 0.9, relative to BCGs at z = 0.2, are still a factor of 1.5 more massive than the predictions of these models. Star formation rates in BCGs at z ~ 1 are generally too low to result in significant amounts of mass. Instead, it is likely that most of the mass build up occurs through mainly dry mergers in which perhaps half of the mass is lost to the intra-cluster medium of the cluster. © 2012 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. © 2012 RAS. Source

Muzzin A.,Yale University | Muzzin A.,Leiden University | Wilson G.,University of California at Riverside | Yee H.K.C.,University of Toronto | And 14 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We evaluate the effects of environment and stellar mass on galaxy properties at 0.85 9.3 the well-known correlations between environment and properties such as star-forming fraction (f SF), star formation rate (SFR), specific SFR (SSFR), D n(4000), and color are already in place at z ∼ 1. We separate the effects of environment and stellar mass on galaxies by comparing the properties of star-forming and quiescent galaxies at fixed environment and fixed stellar mass. The SSFR of star-forming galaxies at fixed environment is correlated with stellar mass; however, at fixed stellar mass it is independent of environment. The same trend exists for the D n(4000) measures of both the star-forming and quiescent galaxies and shows that their properties are determined primarily by their stellar mass, not by their environment. Instead, it appears that environment's primary role is to control the fraction of star-forming galaxies. Using the spectra we identify candidate poststarburst galaxies and find that those with 9.3 < logM */M ⊙ < 10.7 are 3.1 ± 1.1 times more common in high-density regions compared to low-density regions. The clear association of poststarbursts with high-density regions as well as the lack of a correlation between the SSFRs and D n(4000)s of star-forming galaxies with their environment strongly suggests that at z 1 the environmental-quenching timescale must be rapid. Lastly, we construct a simple quenching model which demonstrates that the lack of a correlation between the D n(4000) of quiescent galaxies and their environment results naturally if self quenching dominates over environmental quenching at z > 1, or if the evolution of the self-quenching rate mirrors the evolution of the environmental-quenching rate at z > 1, regardless of which dominates. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

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