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Mayfield Heights, OH, United States

Gass M.L.S.,North American Menopause Society | Stuenkel C.A.,University of California at San Diego | Utian W.H.,North American Menopause Society | Croix A.L.,University of California at San Diego | And 2 more authors.
Menopause | Year: 2015

Objective: A national survey was conducted to determine the extent of use of compounded hormone therapy (C-HT) and to characterize the differences between C-HT users and users of hormone therapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-HT users). Methods: This Internet survey enrolled 3,725 women aged 40 to 84 years who were postmenopausal or experiencing the menopause transition. The sample was weighted slightly by age, region, education, and race to reflect population attributes based on US Census data. Results: Overall, 9% of women were current users of HT, and 28% of all respondents were ever-users of HT. C-HT users represented 31% of ever-users of HT, 35% of current users of HT, and 41% of ever-users aged 40 to 49 years. Approximately 13% of ever-users indicated current or past use of testosterone. The most cited reason for using HT was vasomotor symptoms (70%). Nonapproved indications for using HT were selected more often by C-HT users. There were four reports of endometrial cancer among the 326 C-HT users compared with none reported among the 738 FDA-HT users. Significance was not determined because of small numbers. Conclusions: This survey indicates substantial use of C-HT across the country and the possibility of higher rates of endometrial side effects with such products. There is a need for standardized data collection on the extent of use of compounded hormones and their potential risks. © 2015 by The North American Menopause Society. Source

Gourlay M.L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Overman R.A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Fine J.P.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Ensrud K.E.,Medical Center | And 8 more authors.
Menopause | Year: 2015

This study aims to estimate the incidence of first hip or clinical vertebral fracture or major osteoporotic (hip, clinical vertebral, proximal humerus, or wrist) fracture in postmenopausal women undergoing their first bone mineral density (BMD) test before age 65 years. Methods We studied 4,068 postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 64 years without hip or clinical vertebral fracture or antifracture treatment at baseline, who were participating in the Women's Health Initiative BMD cohort study. BMD tests were performed between October 1993 and April 2005, with fracture follow-up through 2012. Outcomes were the time for 1% of women to sustain a hip or clinical vertebral fracture and the time for 3% of women to sustain a major osteoporotic fracture before initiating treatment, adjusting for clinical risk factors and accounting for competing risks. Women without osteoporosis and women with osteoporosis on their first BMD test were analyzed separately. Results During a maximum of 11.2 years of concurrent BMD and fracture follow-up, the adjusted estimated time for 1% of women to have a hip or clinical vertebral fracture was 12.8 years (95% CI, 8.0-20.4) for women aged 50 to 54 years without baseline osteoporosis, 7.6 years (95% CI, 4.8-12.1) for women aged 60 to 64 years without baseline osteoporosis, and 3.0 years (95% CI, 1.3-7.1) for all women aged 50 to 64 years with baseline osteoporosis. Results for major osteoporotic fracture were similar. Conclusions Because of very low rates of major osteoporotic fracture, postmenopausal women aged 50 to 64 years without osteoporosis on their first BMD test are unlikely to benefit from frequent rescreening before age 65 years. © 2014 by The North American Menopause Society. Source

Brunner R.L.,University of Nevada, Reno | Aragaki A.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Barnabei V.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Cochrane B.B.,University of Washington | And 7 more authors.
Menopause | Year: 2010

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms before starting estrogens or placebo, 1 year later, again at trial closure, and after stopping estrogens or placebo. The role of baseline symptoms and age was examined, as was the frequency and determinants of hormone use and symptom management strategies after discontinuing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) or placebo. Methods: Intent-to-treat analyses of 10,739 postmenopausal women before and 1 year after randomization to CEE or placebo at 40 clinical centers and a cohort analysis of participants (n = 3,496) who continued taking assigned study pills up to trial closure and completed symptom surveys shortly before (mean, 7.4 ± 1.1 y from baseline) and after (mean, 306 ± 55 d after trial closure) stopping pills were performed. Generalized linear regression modeled vasomotor symptoms, vaginal dryness, breast tenderness, pain/stiffness, and mood swings as a function of treatment assignment and baseline symptoms, before and after stopping study pills. Results: Approximately one third of participants reported at least one moderate to severe symptom at baseline. Fewer symptoms were reported with increasing age, except joint pain/stiffness, which was similar among age groups. At 1 year, hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were reduced by CEE, whereas breast tenderness was increased. Breast tenderness was also significantly higher in the CEE group at trial closure. After stopping, vasomotor symptoms were reported by significantly more women who had reported symptoms at baseline, compared with those who had not, and by significantly more participants assigned to CEE (9.8%) versus placebo (3.2%); however, among women with no moderate or severe symptoms at baseline, more than five times as many reported hot flashes after stopping CEE (7.2%) versus placebo (1.5%). Conclusions: CEE significantly reduced vasomotor symptoms and vaginal dryness in women with baseline symptoms but increased breast tenderness. The likelihood of experiencing symptoms was significantly higher after stopping CEE than placebo regardless of baseline symptom status. These potential effects should be considered before initiating CEE to relieve menopausal symptoms. © 2010 by The North American Menopause Society. Source

Gass M.L.S.,North American Menopause Society | Cochrane B.B.,University of Washington | Larson J.C.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Manson J.E.,Harvard University | And 7 more authors.
Menopause | Year: 2011

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the patterns and predictors of sexual activity in the Hormone Therapy (HT) Trials of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Methods: Sexual activity questions were administered to 27,347 women ages 50 to 79 years at baseline and at year 1 and to a random 8.6% subsample at years 3 and 6. The associations with demographic and health characteristics were determined. Results: Sexual activity at baseline was 60.7%, 44.9%, and 28.2% in the 50-to 59-, 60-to 69-, and 70-to 79-year-old age groups, respectively. Most of the participants were satisfied with their current sexual activity (63.2%). Of those dissatisfied, 57% preferred more sexual activity. Vaginal atrophy correlated with sexual inactivity at baseline (P < 0.001). The correlates associated with stopping sexual activity at year 1 included poor/fair self-rated health, lack of satisfaction with quality of life, depression, and loss of partner (P < 0.001). The strongest predictor of sexual activity at year 1 was sexual activity at baseline (odds ratio, 96.71; 95% CI, 81.90-114.20). A subset analysis of women adherent with HT or placebo at years 3 and 6 suggested that HT was associated with a higher percentage of participants reporting sexual activity (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Most women in the WHI HT Trials were satisfied with their sexual activity. Of those who were dissatisfied, the majority preferred more, rather than less, sexual activity. Vaginal atrophy at baseline correlated with sexual inactivity, and sexual activity at baseline was the strongest identified predictor of sexual activity at year 1. HT use was not predictive of ongoing sexual activity in the intent-to-treat analysis. This report further characterizes the participants in the WHI HT trials and reveals the complexity of factors related to the prevalence of sexual activity and satisfaction. © 2011 The North American Menopause Society. Source

Brunner R.L.,University of Nevada, Reno | Wactawski-Wende J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Caan B.J.,Kaiser Permanente | Cochrane B.B.,University of Washington | And 10 more authors.
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2011

In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial of calcium plus vitamin D (CaD), we examined the treatment effect on incidence and mortality for all invasive cancers. Postmenopausal women (N = 36,282) were randomized to 1,000 mg of elemental calcium with 400 IU vitamin D3 or placebo. Cox models estimated risk of cancer incidence and mortality. After 7.0 yr, 1,306 invasive cancers were diagnosed in the supplement and 1,333 in the placebo group [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.98; CI = 0.90, 1.05, unweighted P = 0.54]. Mortality did not differ between supplement (315, annualized% =.26) and placebo [(347, 0.28%; P = 0.17; HR = 0.90 (0.77, 1.05)]. Significant treatment interactions on incident cancer were found for family history of cancer, personal total intake of vitamin D, smoking, and WHI dietary trial randomized group. Calcium/vitamin D supplementation did not reduce invasive cancer incidence or mortality. Supplementation lowered cancer risk in the WHI healthy diet trial arm and in women without a first-degree relative with cancer. The interactions are only suggestive given multiple testing considerations. The low vitamin D dose provided, limited adherence, and lack of serum 25(OH)D values should be considered when interpreting these findings. Copyright © 2011, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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