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Alonso-Alonso M.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Woods S.C.,University of Cincinnati | Pelchat M.,Monell Chemical Senses Center | Grigson P.S.,Penn State College of Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Nutrition Reviews

This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. © The Author(s) 2015. Source

Balentine D.A.,Unilever | Dwyer J.T.,Tufts University | Erdman J.W.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Courtney Gaine P.,North American Branch of the International Life science Institute | Kwik-Uribe C.L.,Mars Inc
Advances in Nutrition

Bioactive food components have shown potential health benefits for more than a decade. Currently there are no recommended levels of intake [i.e., Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)] as there are for nutrients and fiber. DRIs for essential nutrients were based on requirements for each specific nutrient to maintain normal physiologic or biochemical function and to prevent signs of deficiency and adverse clinical effects. They were later expanded to include criteria for reducing the risk of chronic degenerative diseases for some nutrients. There are many challenges for establishing recommendations for intakes of nonessential food components. Although some nonessential food components have shown health benefits and are safe, validated biomarkers of disease risk reduction are lacking for many. Biomarkers of intake (exposure) are limited in number, especially because the bioactive compounds responsible for beneficial effects have not yet been identified or are unknown. Furthermore, given this lack of characterization of composition in a variety of foods, it is difficult to ascertain intakes of nonessential food components, especially with the use of food-frequency questionnaires designed for estimating intakes of nutrients. Various intermediary markers that may predict disease outcome have been used as functional criteria in the DRI process. However, few validated surrogate endpoints of chronic disease risk exist. Nonvalidated intermediary biomarkers of risk may possibly predict clinical outcomes, but more research is needed to confirm the associations between cause and effect. One criterion for establishing acceptable intermediary outcome indicators may be the maintenance of normal physiologic function throughout adulthood, which presumably would lead to reduced chronic disease risk. Multiple biomarkers of outcomes that demonstrate the same health benefit may also be helpful. It would be beneficial to continue to refine the process of setting DRIs by convening a workshop on establishing a framework for nonessential food components that would take into consideration intermediary biomarkers indicative of optimal health. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Hanlon P.,Abbott Laboratories | Brorby G.P.,ToxStrategies Inc. | Krishan M.,North American Branch of the International Life science Institute
International Journal of Toxicology

Processing (eg, cooking, grinding, drying) has changed the composition of food throughout the course of human history; however, awareness of process-formed compounds, and the potential need to mitigate exposure to those compounds, is a relatively recent phenomenon. In May 2015, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America) Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety held a workshop on the risk-based process for mitigation of process-formed compounds. This workshop aimed to gain alignment from academia, government, and industry on a risk-based process for proactively assessing the need for and benefit of mitigation of process-formed compounds, including criteria to objectively assess the impact of mitigation as well as research needed to support this process. Workshop participants provided real-time feedback on a draft framework in the form of a decision tree developed by the ILSI North America Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety to a panel of experts, and they discussed the importance of communicating the value of such a process to the larger scientific community and, ultimately, the public. The outcome of the workshop was a decision tree that can be used by the scientific community and could form the basis of a global approach to assessing the risks associated with mitigation of process-formed compounds. © 2016 The Author(s). Source

Gaine P.C.,North American Branch of the International Life science Institute | Balentine D.A.,Unilever | Erdman J.W.,Urbana University | Dwyer J.T.,Tufts University | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Nutrition

Research has shown that numerous dietary bioactive components that are not considered essential may still be beneficial to health. The dietary reference intake (DRI) process has been applied to nonessential nutrients, such as fiber, yet the majority of bioactive components await a recommended intake. Despite a plethora of new research over the past several years on the health effects of bioactives, it is possible that the field may never reach a point where the current DRI framework is suitable for these food components. If bioactives are to move toward dietary guidance, they will likely require an alternative path to get there. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Leahy M.M.,The Coca-Cola Company | Milner J.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Allison D.B.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Dodd K.W.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 5 more authors.
Advances in Nutrition

The development of nutrition and health guidelines and policies requires reliable scientific information. Unfortunately, theoretical considerations and empirical evidence indicate that a large percentage of science-based claims rely on studies that fail to replicate. The session "Strategies to Optimize the Impact of Nutrition Surveys and Epidemiological Studies" focused on the elements of design, interpretation, and communication of nutritional surveys and epidemiological studies to enhance and encourage the production of reliable, objective evidence for use in developing dietary guidance for the public. The speakers called for more transparency of research, raw data, consistent data-staging techniques, and improved data analysis. New approaches to collecting data are urgently needed to increase the credibility and utility of findings from nutrition epidemiological studies. Such studies are critical for furthering our knowledge and understanding of the effects of diet on health. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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