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Ward E.,Intramural Research | Desantis C.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Robbins A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Kohler B.,North American Association of Central Cancer Registries | Jemal A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2014

In this article, the American Cancer Society provides estimates of the number of new cancer cases and deaths for children and adolescents in the United States and summarizes the most recent and comprehensive data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (which are reported in detail for the first time here and include high-quality data from 45 states and the District of Columbia, covering 90% of the US population). In 2014, an estimated 15,780 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed and 1960 deaths from cancer will occur among children and adolescents aged birth to 19 years. The annual incidence rate of cancer in children and adolescents is 186.6 per 1 million children aged birth to 19 years. Approximately 1 in 285 children will be diagnosed with cancer before age 20 years, and approximately 1 in 530 young adults between the ages of 20 and 39 years is a childhood cancer survivor. It is therefore likely that most pediatric and primary care practices will be involved in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of young patients and survivors. In addition to cancer statistics, this article will provide an overview of risk factors, symptoms, treatment, and long-term and late effects for common pediatric cancers. © 2014 American Cancer Society, Inc. Source

Ward E.M.,Intramural Research | Desantis C.E.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Lin C.C.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Kramer J.L.,Emory University | And 4 more authors.
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2015

An estimated 60,290 new cases of breast carcinoma in situ are expected to be diagnosed in 2015, and approximately 1 in 33 women is likely to receive an in situ breast cancer diagnosis in her lifetime. Although in situ breast cancers are relatively common, their clinical significance and optimal treatment are topics of uncertainty and concern for both patients and clinicians. In this article, the American Cancer Society provides information about occurrence and treatment patterns for the 2 major subtypes of in situ breast cancer in the United States - ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ - using data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and the 13 oldest Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. The authors also present an overview of in situ breast cancer detection, treatment, risk factors, and prevention and discuss research needs and initiatives. © 2015 American Cancer Society. Source

Henry K.A.,West Health Institute | Sherman R.L.,North American Association of Central Cancer Registries | McDonald K.,University of Utah | Johnson C.J.,Cancer Data Registry of Idaho | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2014

Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N = 278,097) were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum), sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12-1.17) and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05-1.08). Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20-1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10-1.18) and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity. © 2014 Kevin A. Henry et al. Source

Henry K.A.,Rutgers University | McDonald K.,University of Utah | Sherman R.,North American Association of Central Cancer Registries | Kinney A.Y.,University of New Mexico | Stroup A.M.,Rutgers University
Journal of Women's Health | Year: 2014

Background: This study investigates factors that are associated with nonadherence to mammography screening guidelines in Utah, a state where mammography screening rates have remained consistently lower than national averages. Methods: We examined data on reported mammography use among women aged 40-74 years from the 2008 and 2010 Utah Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n=5,197, weighted n=417,064). Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of individual-level and geographic (travel time to nearest mammography facility, geographic accessibility, and rural/urban residence) factors on the odds of a woman not reporting receiving a mammogram in the last 2 years. Results: In 2008 and 2010, a disproportionate number of women aged 40-49 (43.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 39.9%-46.3%) reported not receiving a mammogram within the last 2 years compared to women 50-74 (26.8%, 95% CI 24.9%-28.7%). None of the geographic factors were significant predictors of screening adherence. Based on covariate adjusted models, statistically significant (p<0.05) factors associated with increased odds of not receiving mammogram within the last 2 years included not having a regular physician, no health insurance, being aged 40-49, income less than $25,000, and the presence of three or more children in the home. Conclusion: Mammography screening efforts in Utah should focus on improving access to insurance or a regular source of health care. Future research should also consider how best to address extreme time demands and competing priorities that present potential barriers for women with large families, resulting in lower screening levels among these women. © 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Kohler B.A.,North American Association of Central Cancer Registries | Sherman R.L.,North American Association of Central Cancer Registries | Howlader N.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Jemal A.,American Cancer Society | And 10 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2015

Background: The American Cancer Society (ACS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Cancer Institute (NCI), and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to produce updated, national cancer statistics. This Annual Report includes a focus on breast cancer incidence by subtype using new, national-level data. Methods: Population-based cancer trends and breast cancer incidence by molecular subtype were calculated. Breast cancer subtypes were classified using tumor biomarkers for hormone receptor (HR) and human growth factor-neu receptor (HER2) expression. Results: Overall cancer incidence decreased for men by 1.8% annually from 2007 to 2011. Rates for women were stable from 1998 to 2011. Within these trends there was racial/ethnic variation, and some sites have increasing rates. Among children, incidence rates continued to increase by 0.8% per year over the past decade while, like adults, mortality declined. Overall mortality has been declining for both men and women since the early 1990's and for children since the 1970's. HR+/HER2- breast cancers, the subtype with the best prognosis, were the most common for all races/ethnicities with highest rates among non-Hispanic white women, local stage cases, and low poverty areas (92.7, 63.51, and 98.69 per 100000 non-Hispanic white women, respectively). HR+/HER2- breast cancer incidence rates were strongly, positively correlated with mammography use, particularly for non-Hispanic white women (Pearson 0.57, two-sided P <. 001). Triple-negative breast cancers, the subtype with the worst prognosis, were highest among non-Hispanic black women (27.2 per 100000 non-Hispanic black women), which is reflected in high rates in southeastern states. Conclusions: Progress continues in reducing the burden of cancer in the United States. There are unique racial/ethnic-specific incidence patterns for breast cancer subtypes; likely because of both biologic and social risk factors, including variation in mammography use. Breast cancer subtype analysis confirms the capacity of cancer registries to adjust national collection standards to produce clinically relevant data based on evolving medical knowledge. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. Source

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