Ottawa, Canada
Ottawa, Canada

Nortel Networks Corporation, formerly known as Northern Telecom Limited and sometimes known simply as Nortel, was a multinational telecommunications and data networking equipment manufacturer headquartered in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. It was founded in Montreal, Quebec in 1895. At its height, Nortel accounted for more than a third of the total valuation of all the companies listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange , employing 94,500 worldwide.On January 14, 2009, Nortel filed for protection from its creditors in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, in order to restructure its debt and financial obligations. In June 2009, the company announced it would cease operations and sell off all of its business units.The period of bankruptcy protection was extended to February 2, 2013.As part of the bankruptcy proceedings in the United States, Nortel Networks Inc. publishes monthly operating reports outlining cash receipts and disbursements. Wikipedia.

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When a MPLS Virtual Forwarding Entity (VFE) on a Link State Protocol Controlled Ethernet Network learns a forwarding equivalency class (FEC) to label binding from an attached MPLS-LER, it will determine an associated MAC address for the FEC, and advertise the FEC/label binding along with the MAC address. Nodes in the Ethernet network will install shortest path forwarding state for the MAC to the MPLS-VFE advertising the FEC/label binding. Each MPLS-VFEs on the Ethernet network that receive the advertisement will update its database and generate a label that is distributed to attached MPLS LERs using LDP. When the MPLS-LER needs to transmit traffic to the FEC, it will use the label provided by the MPLS-VFE. The MPLS-VFE maintains a mapping between the label and the MAC address so that it may use the MAC address to forward the packet across the Ethernet network.


Routes may be installed across multiple link state protocol controlled Ethernet network areas by causing ABBs to leak I-SID information advertised by BEBs a L1 network area into an L2 network area. ABBs will only leak I-SIDs for BEBs where it is the closest ABB for that BEB. Where another ABB on the L2 network also leaks the same I-SID into the L2 network area from another L1 network area, the I-SID is of multi-area interest. ABBs will advertise I-SIDs that are common to the L1 and L2 networks back into their respective L1 network. Within each L1 and L2 network area, forwarding state will be installed between network elements advertising common interest in an ISID, so that multi-area paths may be created to span the L1/L2/L1 network areas. ABBs may summarize BEB multicast trees such that the set of trees for a given I-SID transiting the ABB is condensed into a common tree. The L2 network may further be implemented as a second layer implemented using a L1/L2/L1 network structure, so that the L1/L2/L1 network structure may recurse an arbitrary number of times.


Patent
Nortel Networks | Date: 2014-11-05

Provider Link State Bridging (PLSB) expands static configuration of Ethernet MAC forwarding tables by the control plane and utilizes direct manipulation of Ethernet forwarding by a link state routing system. At least one media-access-control (MAC) address for unicast forwarding to the bridge and at least one MAC address for multicast forwarding from the bridge are assigned. Bridges exchange state information by a link state bridging protocol so that a synchronized configured view of the network is shared between nodes. Each node can calculate shortest path connective between peer bridging nodes and populated the appropriate forwarding tables. A reverse path forwarding check is performed on incoming packets to provide loop suppression. During times of network instability the loop suppression can be disabled for unicast packets as identified by the destination MAC address to buffer packets and minimize the impact on traffic flow.


Patent
Nortel Networks | Date: 2013-03-27

Embodiments of the invention are concerned with correction of quadrature errors associated with digital communications systems, and in particular in a wireless transmit chain in which an up-converter and a down-converter both have a direct conversion architecture. One embodiment comprises a correction network for correcting a difference between a transmission characteristic of an in-phase signal path and a transmission characteristic of a quadrature signal path, said quadrature signal path being for the transmission of in-phase and quadrature parts of a signal and the signal comprising frequency components within a base band, wherein the correction network comprises an in-phase input port, a quadrature input port, an in-phase output port and a quadrature output port, wherein each input port is connected to each output port by a digital filter network,; the digital filter network comprising a set of filter tap coefficients and configuration means for configuring values of said set of filter tap coefficients. Since each input port is connected to each output port by a digital filter network comprising a set of filter tap coefficients and having configuration means for configuring values of said set of filter tap coefficients, frequency dependent quadrature impairments, for example due to the analogue components of a quadrature up-converter or down-converter, may be corrected by suitable control of the coefficients.


Patent
Nortel Networks | Date: 2013-03-06

A system and method for dynamic traffic load balancing with a multiple physical layer modes of an air interface protocol architecture, the protocol architecture residing in a base station and/or an access network that includes a base station and access gateway that include distributed and centralized components of the air interface protocol architecture. The traffic load balancing supports various multiplexing scenarios for scheduling communication data under time division multiple access and frequency division multiple access techniques for use in the multi-carrier wireless network.


Patent
Nortel Networks | Date: 2013-04-24

A commuter groups service (CGS) allows commuters to join commuter groups so that they are able to socialize while commuting. Through the commuter groups, the users may share commuting routes, traffic updates, road conditions, and other information. Group members may arrange car pools, short term riding arrangements, and may anonymously or directly contact each other. The CGS may collect group member position information, e.g. GPS information, to enable the CGS to calculate traffic conditions and to select location specific information for group members. The system may include an on-line service accessible through a computer or wireless networking device. The user may log into the CGS, create or modify a user profile, and join groups of their choosing. Groups may be associated with specific events or with getting to/from work. Commuter groups may be formed for commuters that use private vehicles and/or public transportation.


Patent
Nortel Networks | Date: 2013-12-11

Optical By-Pass (OBP) links may be created by adding wavelengths between nodes on the network. The OBP may extend between any pair of nodes on the network. Intermediate nodes on the OBP are transient nodes and simply forward traffic optically. An OBP extends between a pair of nodes and, unlike express links, is created in such a manner that it does not affect the previous allocation of resources on the network. This enables capacity to be added between pairs of nodes on the network to alleviate congestion at a portion of the network, without changing other traffic patterns on the network. This enables inclusion of an OBP to be deterministic and of linear impact on the network. The OBP links may be statically provisioned or created on demand. Optionally, the OBP links may be crated to coincide with PBB-TE tunnels on the network.


Traffic Engineered (TE) paths may be created over a link state protocol controlled Ethernet network by causing explicit paths to be installed by network elements on the link state protocol controlled Ethernet network and used to forward traffic on the network. The network elements exchange routing information using link state advertisements to enable each node on the network to build a link state database that may be used to determine shortest paths through the network. The shortest paths are used as a default forwarding state for traffic that is not associated with one of the traffic engineered paths. The link state advertisements may also be used to carry the TE path definitions. Where the TE paths are to be used exclusive of other routes, forwarding state for particular service instances may be removed to prevent traffic from traversing the network other than over the TE path.


Patent
Nortel Networks | Date: 2013-01-16

Methods, systems and apparatuses are provided for transmitting and receiving space-time block coded data in a wireless communications system with co-operative relays. A source node transmits RF signals representing first and second sets of data symbols in respective first and second channels (in time frequency code or any combination) of a wireless communications system, the first and second sets of data symbols being for transmission from separate antennas respectively according to a space-time block code. A relay node receives the RF signals representing the first set of data symbols in the first channel and transmits RF signals representing the first set of data symbols in the second channel. A destination node received the RF signals representing the second set of data symbols from the source node and the RF signals representing the first set of data symbols from the relay node. This enables decoding of the received RF signals representing the first and second sets of data symbols according to the space-time block code.


Alternate multicast/broadcast paths may be calculated in a routed network to enable broadcast/multicast traffic to be transmitted around a local failure in the routed network until the routing system reconverges on a new network topography. According to an embodiment of the invention, the nodes on a multicast tree or a broadcast tree may compute alternate paths for each of the downstream nodes in the multicast/broadcast tree or for select nodes in the multicast/broadcast tree. The select nodes may be those nodes that have advertised membership in the multicast or a set number of hops downstream on the branch affected by the failure. The alternate paths may be unicast paths from the node to the other nodes on the multicast/broadcast tree. U-turn nodes may be used where there is no regular loop-free alternate network path to a node on the downstream multicast/broadcast tree.

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