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Gibbons S.J.,NORSAR | Kvaerna T.,NORSAR
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors | Year: 2017

Aftershocks of the October 8, 2005, M=7.6 Kashmir earthquake continued for many weeks and covered a region extending over an aperture exceeding 100 km. Several hundred events were recorded well at teleseismic distances while many hundreds more are only observed at regional distances. Existing earthquake catalogs for this sequence are poor given an unfavorable distribution of stations, a complex tectonic setting, lack of local and near-regional data, and under-exploitation of the most sensitive stations. Advances in automated signal processing, improvements in seismic velocity models, and innovations in multiple event location algorithms have made it worthwhile revisiting this sequence and attempting a large-scale relocation of the aftershocks. A vast number of new phase readings have been made on permanent and temporary seismic stations both at regional and teleseismic distances and the Bayesian hierachical multiple event location program Bayesloc was employed in multiple stages, resulting in a far more structured distribution to the seismicity. The relocated aftershocks fall mainly into two distinct clusters. One cluster lies predominantly North East of the Balaklot-Bagh Thrust and South of the Main Central Thrust, with the October 8 main shock at its most northern point. The second cluster occupies the Indus-Kohistan Seismic Zone, North of the Main Central Thrust and South of the Main Mantle Thrust. Both clusters lie North East of a NW-SE trending boundary almost parallel to the southern part of the surface rupture. An East South East trending strand of earthquakes extends from the most northerly turning point of the Main Central Thrust into the Kashmir Basin, and a scattering of events are located North of this line and South of the Main Mantle Thrust. The new location estimates result in those aftershocks with the most similar focal mechanisms being far more spatially clustered than in previously published catalogs. Mapping global CMT solutions before and after the relocation contributes to the confidence in the new epicenters and provides a clearer picture of how the source parameters vary over the aftershock region. All files required to reproduce the results using the Bayesloc program are provided. © 2017

Erduran E.,NORSAR | Kunnath S.K.,University of California at Davis
Earthquake Spectra | Year: 2010

The displacement coefficient method proposed in FEMA 440 was evaluated using response statistics from a comprehensive set of nonlinear simulations of multi degree of freedom systems under both far-fault and near-fault ground motions. The study finds that it is practically difficult to achieve high relative strength factors (R values equal to or greater than 6.0) for very stiff systems thereby dictating the need to define R-dependent demand coefficients. The approximate expressions proposed in FEMA 440 for the C2 coefficient is shown to underestimate the displacement demand of stiffness-degrading short period systems. Additional nonlinear simulations were performed to investigate the combined effect of strength degradation and P-Delta effects on the displacement demands of MDOF systems. A new expression for the modification factor that reflect combined P-Delta and degrading effects for the estimation of displacement demands is proposed. © 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Erduran E.,NORSAR | Ryan K.L.,University of Nevada, Reno
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics | Year: 2011

In this study, the torsional response of buildings with peripheral steel-braced frame lateral systems is evaluated. A three-dimensional model of a three story braced frame with various levels of eccentricity is created and the effects of torsion on the seismic response is assessed for four hazard levels. The response history analysis results indicate that, unlike frame structures, the torsional amplifications in the inelastic systems exceed those of corresponding elastic systems and tend to increase with an increase in the level of inelasticity. The ability of two simplified procedures, elastic response spectrum analysis and pushover analysis, to capture the torsional amplifications in steel-braced frames is evaluated. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Harris D.B.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | Kvaerna T.,NORSAR
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2010

Scattering and refraction of seismic waves can be exploited with empirical-matched field processing of array observations to distinguish sources separated by much less than the classical resolution limit. To describe this effect, we use the term 'superresolution', a term widely used in the optics and signal processing literature to denote systems that break the diffraction limit. We illustrate superresolution with Pn signals recorded by the ARCES array in northern Norway, using them to identify the origins with 98.2 per cent accuracy of 549 explosions conducted by closely spaced mines in northwest Russia. The mines are observed at 340-410 km range and are separated by as little as 3 km. When viewed from ARCES many are separated by just tenths of a degree in azimuth. This classification performance results from an adaptation to transient seismic signals of techniques developed in underwater acoustics for localization of continuous sound sources. Matched field processing is a potential competitor to frequency-wavenumber (FK) and waveform correlation methods currently used for event detection, classification and location. It operates by capturing the spatial structure of wavefields incident from a particular source in a series of narrow frequency bands. In the rich seismic scattering environment, closely spaced sources far from the observing array nonetheless produce distinct wavefield amplitude and phase patterns across the small array aperture. With observations of repeating events, these patterns can be calibrated over a wide band of frequencies (e.g. 2.5-12.5 Hz) for use in a power estimation technique similar to frequency-wavenumber analysis. The calibrations enable coherent processing at high frequencies at which wavefields normally are considered incoherent under a plane-wave model. No claim to original US government works Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.

Gibbons S.J.,NORSAR
Pure and Applied Geophysics | Year: 2014

The seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) are highly diverse in size and configuration, with apertures ranging from under 1 km to over 60 km. Large and medium aperture arrays with large inter-site spacings complicate the detection and estimation of high-frequency phases lacking coherence between sensors. Pipeline detection algorithms often miss such phases, since they only consider frequencies low enough to allow coherent array processing, and phases that are detected are often attributed qualitatively incorrect backazimuth and slowness estimates. This can result in missed events, due to either a lack of contributing phases or by corruption of event hypotheses by spurious detections. It has been demonstrated previously that continuous spectral estimation can both detect and estimate phases on the largest aperture arrays, with arrivals identified as local maxima on beams of transformed spectrograms. The estimation procedure in effect measures group velocity rather than phase velocity, as is the case for classical f-k analysis, and the ability to estimate slowness vectors requires sufficiently large inter-sensor distances to resolve time-delays between pulses with a period of the order 4-5 s. Spectrogram beampacking works well on five IMS arrays with apertures over 20 km (NOA, AKASG, YKA, WRA, and KURK) without additional post-processing. Seven arrays with 10-20 km aperture (MJAR, ESDC, ILAR, KSRS, CMAR, ASAR, and EKA) can provide robust parameter estimates subject to a smoothing of the resulting slowness grids, most effectively achieved by convolving the measured slowness grids with the array response function for a 4 or 5 s period signal. Even for medium aperture arrays which can provide high-quality coherent slowness estimates, a complementary spectrogram beampacking procedure could act as a quality control by providing non-aliased estimates when the coherent slowness grids display significant sidelobes. The detection part of the algorithm is applicable to all IMS arrays, with spectrogram-based processing offering a potential reduction in the false alarm rate for high-frequency signals. Significantly, the local maxima of the scalar functions derived from the transformed spectrogram beams are robust estimates of the signal onset time. High-frequency energy is of greater importance for lower event magnitudes and in the cavity decoupling detection evasion scenario. There is a need to characterize both propagation paths with low attenuation of high-frequency energy and situations in which parameter estimation on array stations fails. © 2012 Springer Basel.

Erduran E.,NORSAR
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics | Year: 2012

The effects of Rayleigh damping model on the engineering demand parameters of two steel moment-resisting frame buildings were evaluated. Two-dimensional models of the buildings were created and response history analysis were conducted for three different hazard levels. The response history analysis results indicate that mass-proportional damping leads to high damping forces compared with restoring forces and may lead to overestimation of floor acceleration demands for both buildings. Stiffness-proportional damping, on the other hand, is observed to suppress the higher-mode effects in the nine-story building resulting in lower story drift demands in the upper floors compared with other damping models. Rayleigh damping models, which combine mass-proportional and stiffness-proportional components, that are anchored at reduced modal frequencies lead to reasonable damping forces and floor acceleration demands for both buildings and does not suppress higher-mode effects in the nine-story building. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Vavrycuk V.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Kuhn D.,NORSAR
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2012

We present a moment tensor inversion of waveforms, which is more robust and yields more stable and more accurate results than standard approaches. The inversion is performed in two steps and combines inversions in time and frequency domains. First, the inversion for the source-time function is performed in the frequency domain using complex spectra. Second, the time-domain inversion for the moment tensor is performed using the source-time function calculated in the first step. In this way, we can consider a realistic, complex source-time function and still keep the final moment tensor inversion linear. Using numerical modelling, we compare the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach with standard waveform inversions. We study the sensitivity of the retrieved double-couple and non-double-couple components of the moment tensors to noise in the data, to inaccuracies of the location and of the velocity model, and to the type of the focal mechanism. Finally, the proposed moment tensor inversion is tested on real data observed in a complex 3-D inhomogeneous geological environment: a production blast and a rockburst in the Pyhäsalmi ore mine, Finland. © 2012 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2012 RAS.

Gibbons S.J.,NORSAR | Ringdal F.,NORSAR
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2012

North Korea announced a second nuclear test on 25 May 2009, the first having taken place on October 9, 2006. Both tests were detected by the global seismic network of the Comprehensive nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organisation. We apply a correlation detector using a 10-s signal template from the 2006 test on the MJAR array in Japan to: 1) assess the potential for automatically detecting subsequent explosions at or near the test site; and 2) monitor the associated false alarm rate. The 2009 signal is detected clearly with no false alarms in a three-year period. By detecting scaled-down copies of the explosion signals submerged into background noise, we argue that a significantly smaller explosion at the site would have been detected automatically, with a low false alarm rate. The performance of the correlator on MJAR is not diminished by the signal incoherence that makes conventional array processing problematic at this array. We demonstrate that false alarm elimination by f-k analysis of single channel detection statistic traces is crucial for maintaining a low detection threshold. Correlation detectors are to be advocated as a routine complement to the existing pipeline detectors, both for reducing the detection threshold for sites of interest and providing automatic classification of signals from repeating sources. © 2012 IEEE.

Kuhn D.,NORSAR | Vavrycuk V.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Tectonophysics | Year: 2013

The determination of source parameters and full moment tensors in mines is a difficult task, especially, when the velocity model of the mining environment is complex and strongly heterogeneous. The heterogeneities in the velocity model are usually caused by the presence of ore bodies, host rocks, tunnel systems and large excavations due to mining activity. The mined-out cavities introduce strong velocity contrasts in the model, cause multiple scattering of waves and result in a complex wave field with long coda waves. We have analysed five blasts and five induced microseismic events recorded at the Pyhäsalmi ore mine, Finland, and suggest a strategy of successfully inverting for the seismic moment tensors. We compute accurate locations using an eikonal solver and perform the time-domain moment tensor inversion from full waveforms using a generalized linear inversion. Green's functions are computed using a 3-D finite difference visco-elastic code capable of reproducing complex interactions of waves and structures. To suppress the sensitivity of the inversion to inaccuracies of locations and the velocity model, we analyse the data in the frequency range from 30 to 80. Hz. The analysis of blasts and microseismic events proves that the moment tensor inversion is successful. The moment tensors of blasts display a high percentage of positive isotropic components. However, the presence of minor shear faulting triggered during blasting cannot be excluded. On the other hand, the moment tensors of microseismic events display significant negative isotropic and compensated linear vector dipole components. This indicates that the predominant mechanism of the events is probably related to the collapse of rock due to mining activity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Kvaerna T.,NORSAR | Ringdal F.,NORSAR
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America | Year: 2013

We have investigated the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Center (IDC) for the time period 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2011 in order to quantify the event detection capability of individual seismic stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). In order to obtain regionalized detection thresholds, we divide the events into a binned global grid system and investigate three estimation algorithms applied to each specific target area. Our preferred algorithm is to consider the ensemble of REB reported events in the area, and downscale each event magnitude with the observed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the station. In this process, it is necessary to take into account events not detected by the station, in order to avoid a bias in the threshold estimate. We address this problem by using a maximum-likelihood estimation procedure whenever information on nondetections is available in the REB and correct for an estimated bias in other cases. A major result of this study is quantification and ranking of the IMS primary and auxiliary seismic stations based on their capability to detect events within regional and teleseismic distance ranges. We note that for each station, source regions with noticeable signal amplitude focusing effects (bright spots) and defocusing effects can be identified and quantified.We apply the results of this study to calculate updated global detection capability maps for the IMS primary seismic network.

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