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News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

Angry male cuttlefish flash flash hugely, unilaterally dilated eyes at each other amid their scrum over the female to the left. (Credit: Justine Allen, Derya Akkaynak) On a research dive in 2011 off the Aegean Sea coast of the fishing village Çeşmealtı, Turkey, a lucky pair of graduate students got to see two male cuttlefish competing for a mate. It’s a violent, theatrical phenomenon scientists have otherwise only ever seen in the lab. “This male just kind of appeared right next to my left side and rested next to a clump of algae on the sea floor,” says Justine Allen, who went on to earn her PhD in neuroscience at Brown University where she is now an adjunct instructor in ecology and evolutionary biology. “The female was a few meters in front. Out of nowhere he just swam up, grabbed her, and they mated in the head-to-head position.” Equipped with video cameras to record data for a camouflage study, coauthors Allen and Derya Akkaynak, now at the University of Haifa in Israel, captured the combat, analyzed it, and have now published their findings in the American Naturalist. The video shows a dramatic sequence of events. The female and her newfound male consort finished mating and started to swim off together. A male common European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, will “guard” his mate to make it more likely that it’s his sperm that she’ll use to fertilize her eggs when she lays them. But a little more than three minutes later, a second male disrupts the new couple’s harmony. To announce his intrusive intentions, he brandished two of the many peculiar gestures cuttlefish employ to show aggression: He extended his fourth arm toward the consort male and dilated the pupil of the eye that faced his foe. “They have a whole repertoire of behaviors that they use to signal to each other, and we’re just barely starting to understand some of them,” Allen says. “A lot of their fighting is done through visual signals. Most of these battles are actually these beautiful, stunning skin displays. It’s a vicious war of colors.” But sometimes, they attack physically. In the paper, the authors analyze the emergence and progression of these behaviors, recorded for the first time ever in the wild, in the context of game theory. Scientists since Aristotle have been curious about the courtship and sexual selection behaviors of cuttlefish. In any species, the way mating takes place has everything to do with their survival as a species. The height of those stakes are why things then proceeded to get nasty. The intruder’s pupil dilation and arm extension began the first of three brief bouts over the course of about four minutes, each with escalating levels of aggression. The consort male met the initial insult with his own arm extension and—as only color-changing animals like cuttlefish can do—a darkening of his face. Then both males flashed brightly contrasting zebra-like bands on their skin, heightening the war of displays further. Bout number one would go to the intruder as the consort became alarmed, darkened his whole body, squirted a cloud of ink in the intruder’s face, and jetted away. For more than a minute, the intruder male tried to guard and cozy up to the female, but the consort male returned to try to reclaim his position with a newly darkened face and zebra banding. He inked and jetted around the pair to find an angle to intervene, but the intruder fended him off with more aggressive gestures including swiping at him with that fourth arm. Bout number two again went to the intruder. Then the intruder crossed a line, grabbing the female and trying to position her body to engage in head-to-head mating, but she wasn’t really all that interested. That final act brought the consort male charging back into the fray with the greatest aggression yet. He grabbed the intruder and twisted him around in a barrel roll three times, the most aggressive gesture in the cuttlefish arsenal. He also bit the other male. The female swam out of the fracas—and the intruder fled, chased off by the victorious consort male. “Male 1 wins the whole thing because we saw him with the female later, and that’s really what matters,” Allen says. “It’s who ends up with her in the end.” Coauthor Roger Hanlon, professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and senior scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, moments later observed and filmed the consort swimming with the female. Though more violent than most interactions scientists have documented in lab tanks, the field observation appears to back up the scientific community’s working hypothesis of male cuttlefish rivalry: a “mutual assessment” model of game theory in which the combatants base their actions on how they judge their ability to prevail relative to their opponent’s ability. That model predicts, for example, that cuttlefish will escalate a fight at the same rate to feel each other out. It also predicts that the fight will end when one has gained a clear upper hand over the other. Both of these predictions appeared to play out in the three escalating bouts and their conclusion. The alternative models, where the combatants don’t factor in their opponent’s strength, make different predictions that were not as evident in the way this particular fight proceeded. Coauthor Alexandra Schnell of Normandie University in France led this analysis. Of course, exciting as it was, the episode amounts to only one observation, Allen says. Many more observations and carefully designed experiments are needed to truly understand cuttlefish reproductive behavior. That speaks to the value of getting out of the lab and away from the computer. “A lot of science, especially animal behavior, needs to be done outside, in the field, with wild animals,” Allen says. “You have to be lucky enough to catch them on film to analyze what they are doing, but science is happening outside all around us, all the time.”


News Article | May 2, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

On a research dive in 2011 off the Aegean Sea coast of the fishing village Çeşmealtı, Turkey, a lucky pair of graduate students bore accidental witness to a phenomenon scientists have otherwise only ever seen in the lab: the theater and violence of male cuttlefish competing for a mate. Equipped with video cameras to record data for a study of camouflage, the team captured the combat, analyzed it and have now published the results in the American Naturalist to share the science and the spectacle with the world. “This male just kind of appeared right next to my left side and rested next to a clump of algae on the sea floor,” recalled Justine Allen, who went on to earn her Ph.D. in neuroscience at Brown and is now an adjunct instructor in the University’s Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. “The female was a few meters in front. Out of nowhere he just swam up, grabbed her, and they mated in the head-to-head position.” The video she shot with co-author Derya Akkaynak, now at the University of Haifa in Israel, shows a dramatic sequence of events. The female and her newfound male consort finished mating and started to swim off together — a male common European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, will “guard” his mate to make it more likely that it’s his sperm that she’ll use to fertilize her eggs when she lays them. But a little more than three minutes later, a second male disrupted the new couple’s harmony. To announce his intrusive intentions, he brandished two of the many peculiar gestures cuttlefish employ to show aggression: He extended his fourth arm toward the consort male and dilated the pupil of the eye that faced his foe. “They have a whole repertoire of behaviors that they use to signal to each other, and we’re just barely starting to understand some of them,” said Allen, who is also the training grant manager in Brown’s Office of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies. “A lot of their fighting is done through visual signals. Most of these battles are actually these beautiful, stunning skin displays. It’s a vicious war of colors.” But sometimes, as the study documents, they’ll attack physically. In the paper, the authors analyze the emergence and progression of these behaviors, recorded for the first time ever in the wild, in the context of game theory. Scientists since Aristotle have been curious about the courtship and sexual selection behaviors of cuttlefish. In any species, Allen points out, the way mating takes place has everything to do with their survival as a species. The height of those stakes are why things then proceeded to get nasty. The intruder’s pupil dilation and arm extension began the first of three brief bouts over the course of about four minutes, each with escalating levels of aggression. The consort male met the initial insult with his own arm extension and — as only color-changing animals like cuttlefish can do — a darkening of his face. Then both males flashed brightly contrasting zebra-like bands on their skin, heightening the war of displays further. Bout number one would go to the intruder as the consort became alarmed, darkened his whole body, squirted a cloud of ink in the intruder's face and jetted away. For more than a minute, the intruder male tried to guard and cozy up to the female, but the consort male returned to try to reclaim his position with a newly darkened face and zebra banding. He inked and jetted around the pair to find an angle to intervene, but the intruder fended him off with more aggressive gestures including swiping at him with that fourth arm. Bout number two again went to the intruder. He grabbed the female and tried to position her body to engage in head-to-head mating, but she didn't exhibit much interest, Allen said. The intruder’s act brought the consort male charging back into the fray with the greatest aggression yet. He grabbed the intruder and twisted him around in a barrel roll three times, the most aggressive gesture in the cuttlefish arsenal. He also bit the other male. The female, meanwhile, swam out of the fracas. The intruder fled, chased off by the victorious consort male. Study co-author Roger Hanlon, Brown University professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and senior scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass., moments later observed and filmed the consort swimming with the female. Allen was affiliated with the Brown-MBL Joint Program in Biological and Environmental Sciences while Akkaynak was studying in a joint Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Woods Hole Oceanagraphic Institute graduate program. “Male 1 wins the whole thing because we saw him with the female later, and that’s really what matters,” Allen said. “It’s who ends up with her in the end.” Though more violent than most of the interactions scientists have documented in lab tanks, the field observation appears to back up the scientific community’s working hypothesis of male cuttlefish rivalry: It suggests a “mutual assessment” model of game theory in which the combatants base their actions on how they judge their ability to prevail relative to their opponent’s ability. That model predicts, for example, that the cuttlefish will escalate the fight at the same rate, as if to feel each other out. It also predicts that the fight will end when one has gained a clear upper hand over the other. Both of these predictions appeared to play out in the three escalating bouts and their conclusion. The alternative models, where the combatants don’t factor in their opponent’s strength, make different predictions that were not as evident in the way this particular fight proceeded. Study co-author Alexandra Schnell of Normandie University in France led this analysis. Of course, exciting as it was, the episode amounts to only one observation, Allen acknowledged. Many more observations and carefully designed experiments are needed to truly understand cuttlefish reproductive behavior. That speaks to the value of getting out of the lab and away from the computer. “A lot of science, especially animal behavior, needs to be done outside, in the field, with wild animals,” Allen said. “You have to be lucky enough to catch them on film to analyze what they are doing, but science is happening outside all around us, all the time.”


News Article | May 2, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

On a research dive in 2011 off the Aegean Sea coast of the fishing village Çeşmealtı, Turkey, a lucky pair of graduate students bore accidental witness to a phenomenon scientists have otherwise only ever seen in the lab: the theater and violence of male cuttlefish competing for a mate. Equipped with video cameras to record data for a study of camouflage, the team captured the combat, analyzed it and have now published the results in the American Naturalist to share the science and the spectacle with the world. “This male just kind of appeared right next to my left side and rested next to a clump of algae on the sea floor,” recalled Justine Allen, who went on to earn her Ph.D. in neuroscience at Brown and is now an adjunct instructor in the University’s Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. “The female was a few meters in front. Out of nowhere he just swam up, grabbed her, and they mated in the head-to-head position.” The video she shot with co-author Derya Akkaynak, now at the University of Haifa in Israel, shows a dramatic sequence of events. The female and her newfound male consort finished mating and started to swim off together — a male common European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, will “guard” his mate to make it more likely that it’s his sperm that she’ll use to fertilize her eggs when she lays them. But a little more than three minutes later, a second male disrupted the new couple’s harmony. To announce his intrusive intentions, he brandished two of the many peculiar gestures cuttlefish employ to show aggression: He extended his fourth arm toward the consort male and dilated the pupil of the eye that faced his foe. “They have a whole repertoire of behaviors that they use to signal to each other, and we’re just barely starting to understand some of them,” said Allen, who is also the training grant manager in Brown’s Office of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies. “A lot of their fighting is done through visual signals. Most of these battles are actually these beautiful, stunning skin displays. It’s a vicious war of colors.” But sometimes, as the study documents, they’ll attack physically. In the paper, the authors analyze the emergence and progression of these behaviors, recorded for the first time ever in the wild, in the context of game theory. Scientists since Aristotle have been curious about the courtship and sexual selection behaviors of cuttlefish. In any species, Allen points out, the way mating takes place has everything to do with their survival as a species. The height of those stakes are why things then proceeded to get nasty. The intruder’s pupil dilation and arm extension began the first of three brief bouts over the course of about four minutes, each with escalating levels of aggression. The consort male met the initial insult with his own arm extension and — as only color-changing animals like cuttlefish can do — a darkening of his face. Then both males flashed brightly contrasting zebra-like bands on their skin, heightening the war of displays further. Bout number one would go to the intruder as the consort became alarmed, darkened his whole body, squirted a cloud of ink in the intruder's face and jetted away. For more than a minute, the intruder male tried to guard and cozy up to the female, but the consort male returned to try to reclaim his position with a newly darkened face and zebra banding. He inked and jetted around the pair to find an angle to intervene, but the intruder fended him off with more aggressive gestures including swiping at him with that fourth arm. Bout number two again went to the intruder. He grabbed the female and tried to position her body to engage in head-to-head mating, but she didn't exhibit much interest, Allen said. The intruder’s act brought the consort male charging back into the fray with the greatest aggression yet. He grabbed the intruder and twisted him around in a barrel roll three times, the most aggressive gesture in the cuttlefish arsenal. He also bit the other male. The female, meanwhile, swam out of the fracas. The intruder fled, chased off by the victorious consort male. Study co-author Roger Hanlon, Brown University professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and senior scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass., moments later observed and filmed the consort swimming with the female. Allen was affiliated with the Brown-MBL Joint Program in Biological and Environmental Sciences while Akkaynak was studying in a joint Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Woods Hole Oceanagraphic Institute graduate program. “Male 1 wins the whole thing because we saw him with the female later, and that’s really what matters,” Allen said. “It’s who ends up with her in the end.” Though more violent than most of the interactions scientists have documented in lab tanks, the field observation appears to back up the scientific community’s working hypothesis of male cuttlefish rivalry: It suggests a “mutual assessment” model of game theory in which the combatants base their actions on how they judge their ability to prevail relative to their opponent’s ability. That model predicts, for example, that the cuttlefish will escalate the fight at the same rate, as if to feel each other out. It also predicts that the fight will end when one has gained a clear upper hand over the other. Both of these predictions appeared to play out in the three escalating bouts and their conclusion. The alternative models, where the combatants don’t factor in their opponent’s strength, make different predictions that were not as evident in the way this particular fight proceeded. Study co-author Alexandra Schnell of Normandie University in France led this analysis. Of course, exciting as it was, the episode amounts to only one observation, Allen acknowledged. Many more observations and carefully designed experiments are needed to truly understand cuttlefish reproductive behavior. That speaks to the value of getting out of the lab and away from the computer. “A lot of science, especially animal behavior, needs to be done outside, in the field, with wild animals,” Allen said. “You have to be lucky enough to catch them on film to analyze what they are doing, but science is happening outside all around us, all the time.”


Equipped with video cameras to record data for a study of camouflage, the team captured the combat, analyzed it and have now published the results in the American Naturalist to share the science and the spectacle with the world. "This male just kind of appeared right next to my left side and rested next to a clump of algae on the sea floor," recalled Justine Allen, who went on to earn her Ph.D. in neuroscience at Brown and is now an adjunct instructor in the University's Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. "The female was a few meters in front. Out of nowhere he just swam up, grabbed her, and they mated in the head-to-head position." The video she shot with co-author Derya Akkaynak, now at the University of Haifa in Israel, shows a dramatic sequence of events. The female and her newfound male consort finished mating and started to swim off together—a male common European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, will "guard" his mate to make it more likely that it's his sperm that she'll use to fertilize her eggs when she lays them. But a little more than three minutes later, a second male disrupted the new couple's harmony. To announce his intrusive intentions, he brandished two of the many peculiar gestures cuttlefish employ to show aggression: He extended his fourth arm toward the consort male and dilated the pupil of the eye that faced his foe. "They have a whole repertoire of behaviors that they use to signal to each other, and we're just barely starting to understand some of them," said Allen, who is also the training grant manager in Brown's Office of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies. "A lot of their fighting is done through visual signals. Most of these battles are actually these beautiful, stunning skin displays. It's a vicious war of colors." But sometimes, as the study documents, they'll attack physically. In the paper, the authors analyze the emergence and progression of these behaviors, recorded for the first time ever in the wild, in the context of game theory. Scientists since Aristotle have been curious about the courtship and sexual selection behaviors of cuttlefish. In any species, Allen points out, the way mating takes place has everything to do with their survival as a species. The height of those stakes are why things then proceeded to get nasty. The intruder's pupil dilation and arm extension began the first of three brief bouts over the course of about four minutes, each with escalating levels of aggression. The consort male met the initial insult with his own arm extension and—as only color-changing animals like cuttlefish can do—a darkening of his face. Then both males flashed brightly contrasting zebra-like bands on their skin, heightening the war of displays further. Bout number one would go to the intruder as the consort became alarmed, darkened his whole body, squirted a cloud of ink in the intruder's face and jetted away. For more than a minute, the intruder male tried to guard and cozy up to the female, but the consort male returned to try to reclaim his position with a newly darkened face and zebra banding. He inked and jetted around the pair to find an angle to intervene, but the intruder fended him off with more aggressive gestures including swiping at him with that fourth arm. Bout number two again went to the intruder. He grabbed the female and tried to position her body to engage in head-to-head mating, but she didn't exhibit much interest, Allen said. The intruder's act brought the consort male charging back into the fray with the greatest aggression yet. He grabbed the intruder and twisted him around in a barrel roll three times, the most aggressive gesture in the cuttlefish arsenal. He also bit the other male. The female, meanwhile, swam out of the fracas. The intruder fled, chased off by the victorious consort male. Study co-author Roger Hanlon, Brown University professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and senior scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass., moments later observed and filmed the consort swimming with the female. Allen was affiliated with the Brown-MBL Joint Program in Biological and Environmental Sciences while Akkaynak was studying in a joint Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Woods Hole Oceanagraphic Institute graduate program. "Male 1 wins the whole thing because we saw him with the female later, and that's really what matters," Allen said. "It's who ends up with her in the end." Though more violent than most of the interactions scientists have documented in lab tanks, the field observation appears to back up the scientific community's working hypothesis of male cuttlefish rivalry: It suggests a "mutual assessment" model of game theory in which the combatants base their actions on how they judge their ability to prevail relative to their opponent's ability. That model predicts, for example, that the cuttlefish will escalate the fight at the same rate, as if to feel each other out. It also predicts that the fight will end when one has gained a clear upper hand over the other. Both of these predictions appeared to play out in the three escalating bouts and their conclusion. The alternative models, where the combatants don't factor in their opponent's strength, make different predictions that were not as evident in the way this particular fight proceeded. Study co-author Alexandra Schnell of Normandie University in France led this analysis. Of course, exciting as it was, the episode amounts to only one observation, Allen acknowledged. Many more observations and carefully designed experiments are needed to truly understand cuttlefish reproductive behavior. That speaks to the value of getting out of the lab and away from the computer. "A lot of science, especially animal behavior, needs to be done outside, in the field, with wild animals," Allen said. "You have to be lucky enough to catch them on film to analyze what they are doing, but science is happening outside all around us, all the time." More information: Justine J. Allen et al, Dramatic Fighting by Male Cuttlefish for a Female Mate, The American Naturalist (2017). DOI: 10.1086/692009


Achelle S.,CNRS Chemistry Institute of Rennes | Baudequin C.,Normandie University | Ple N.,Normandie University
Dyes and Pigments | Year: 2013

Though the past few decades, the development of new luminescent materials has received a lot of attention due to their applications as fluorescent sensors, in biological microscopy and in optoelectronic devices. Most of these applications are relied on intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). Presence of electron withdrawing N-heterocycles such as pyrazine and quinoxaline rings appeared therefore particularly interesting to be used as electron-attracting part in π-conjugated structures. Moreover, presence of nitrogen atoms with lone electron pairs allows to the pyrazine and the quinoxaline ring to act as effective and stable complexing agent or as base that can be protonated. This review reports luminescent small molecules and oligomers including a pyrazine or quinoxaline ring in their scaffold highlighting their applications related to photoluminescence and electroluminescence. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Oudeyer S.,Normandie University | Briere J.-F.,Normandie University | Levacher V.,Normandie University
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2014

Enantioselective protonation represents an appealing approach for the construction of nonracemic chiral tertiary carbon centres, frequently found in a large range of bio-relevant organic compounds. The development of efficient catalytic processes has hitherto been regarded as a challenging goal for the synthetic chemist. Significant developments in catalytic enantioselective protonation (EP) that have been emerging over the last few years (2009-2013) are presented in this microreview. These include not only catalytic EP processes from preformed enol derivatives and useful tandem Michael addition/protonation sequences, but also unprecedented catalytic cascade reactions involving enantioselective protonation as a crucial stereo-determining step. Here, special attention is paid to the scope and limitations of these new catalytic EP processes, while valuable mechanistic insights into the catalytic cycles and into the key enantioselective protonation steps are provided. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Tognetti V.,Normandie University | Joubert L.,Normandie University
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2013

In this letter, we assess to what extent Bader's atomic charges are appropriate to quantify charge transfers in photon absorption processes. We actually underline the fundamental role of the atomic dipole moment, which is indeed involved in the change of the electron density polarization upon excitation. This contribution cannot be neglected and enables to reproduce the total transition dipole moments with full accuracy if an enough tight integration quadrature is used. As this scheme allows separating intra-atomic density reorganization and interatomic charge transfer, it is well suited to describe through-space charge-transfer excitations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Guinamard R.,Normandie University | Simard C.,Normandie University | Del Negro C.,College of William and Mary
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Flufenamic acid has been known since the 1960s to have anti-inflammatory properties attributable to the reduction of prostaglandin synthesis. Thirty years later, flufenamic acid appeared to be an ion channel modulator. Thus, while its use in medicine diminished, its use in ionic channel research expanded. Flufenamic acid commonly not only affects non-selective cation channels and chloride channels, but also modulates potassium, calcium and sodium channels with effective concentrations ranging from 10-6 M in TRPM4 channel inhibition to 10-3 M in two-pore outwardly rectifying potassium channel activation. Because flufenamic acid effects develop and reverse rapidly, it is a convenient and widely used tool. However, given the broad spectrum of its targets, experimental results have to be interpreted cautiously. Here we provide an overview of ion channels targeted by flufenamic acid to aid in interpreting its effects at the molecular, cellular, and system levels. If it is used with good practices, flufenamic acid remains a useful tool for ion channel research. Understanding the targets of FFA may help reevaluate its physiological impacts and revive interest in its therapeutic potential. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Tite T.,Normandie University | Sabbah M.,Normandie University | Levacher V.,Normandie University | Briere J.-F.,Normandie University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

An asymmetric organocatalysed decarboxylative protonation reaction allowed a straightforward synthesis of α-substituted isoxazolidin-5-ones from readily available 5-substituted Meldrum's acids. This process is initiated by an anionic formal (3+2) cycloaddition-fragmentation, generated in-situ from a sulfone-amide precursor which also served as a latent source of proton. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Jozet-Alves C.,Normandie University | Bertin M.,Normandie University | Clayton N.S.,University of Cambridge
Current Biology | Year: 2013

The recollection of past experiences allows us to recall what happened during a particular event, and where and when it occurred [1]. Since the first study on episodic-like memory in scrub-jays [2], there has been widespread acceptance of the idea that tests in animals should integrate the 'what', 'where' and 'when' components of a unique event that occurred in the past [3,4]. This is referred to as episodic-like memory rather than episodic memory per se, in acknowledgement of the lack of evidence for, or against, the phenomenological aspects that accompany episodic recollection in humans. So far, evidence for episodic-like memory has only been found in some birds and mammals. We show here that cuttlefish, cephalopod mollusks, keep track of what they have eaten, and where and how long ago they ate, in order to match their foraging behavior with the time of replenishing of different foods. Foraging in cuttlefish fulfils the criteria of 'what', 'where' and 'when' of unique events and thus provides behavioral evidence of episodic-like memory in an invertebrate. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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