Normandeau Associates

Nashua, NH, United States

Normandeau Associates

Nashua, NH, United States
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Willmott K.R.,University of Florida | Robinson Willmott J.C.,Normandeau Associates | Elias M.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Jiggins C.D.,University of Cambridge
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2017

Mimicry is one of the best-studied examples of adaptation, and recent studies have provided new insights into the role of mimicry in speciation and diversification. Classical Müllerian mimicry theory predicts convergence in warning signal among protected species, yet tropical butterflies are exuberantly diverse in warning colour patterns, even within communities.We tested the hypothesis that microhabitat partitioning in aposematic butterflies and insectivorous birds can lead to selection for different colour patterns in different microhabitats and thus help maintain mimicry diversity. We measured distribution across flight height and topography for 64 species of clearwing butterflies (Ithomiini) and their co-mimics, and 127 species of insectivorous birds, in an Amazon rainforest community. For the majority of bird species, estimated encounter rates were non-random for the two most abundant mimicry rings. Furthermore, most butterfly species in these two mimicry rings displayed the warning colour pattern predicted to be optimal for antipredator defence in their preferred microhabitats. These conclusions were supported by a field trial using butterfly specimens, which showed significantly different predation rates on colour patterns in two microhabitats. We therefore provide the first direct evidence to support the hypothesis that different mimicry patterns can represent stable, community-level adaptations to differing biotic environments. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Burger J.,Rutgers University | Niles L.J.,Conserve Wildlife | Porter R.R.,800 Quinard Court | Dey A.D.,Endangered and Nongame Program | And 2 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2012

With a worldwide increase in energy needs, many countries are increasing their development of renewable sources, such as wind and solar. We examined possible risk to a migrating and wintering shorebird (red knots Calidris canutus rufa) along the Atlantic Coast of the United States by developing a conceptual model of assessment endpoints, stressors, exposure, and effects characterization, and testing the applicability of knots fitted with geolocators to provide data for salient aspects of exposure and risk for coastal and offshore development. Birds were fitted with geolocators in Delaware Bay (New Jersey) and Monomoy Refuge (Massachusetts) in 2009, and recaptured at the same locations in 2010. The knots recaptured in Delaware Bay were long-distance migrants that spent less time along the Atlantic Coast (<7%, N=3), while the knots recaptured in Monomoy spent over half of the year migrating, at stopovers, and wintering along the Atlantic Coast (>60%, N=6 with one-year cycle). The continuous record of geolocators provides useful data for a risk evaluation about: (1) high use areas for this shorebird (2) migration, staging and wintering areas, (3) possible foraging times while at stopovers, (4) synchrony of arrival and departure times, (5) weight or condition following a yearly cycle, and (6) direction of movements over the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (AOCS), a potential risk consideration with respect to offshore wind development. All knots crossed the AOCS at least twice during long-distance flights, and more often on shorter flights. The knots captured at Monomoy spent over 60% of their cycle while migrating, at stopovers, and while wintering along the Atlantic coast, suggesting the importance of this region to conservation of knots. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Leoniak G.,Antioch University New England | Barnum S.,Normandeau Associates | Atwood J.L.,Antioch University New England | Rinehart K.,University of Vermont | Elbroch M.,University of California at Davis
Northeastern Naturalist | Year: 2012

To mitigate the unintended consequences of roads and habitat fragmentation, biologists model wildlife corridors with least-cost path (LCP) analysis of spatial data managed with geographic information systems. However, the ability of LCP models to accurately predict preferred movement corridors remains questionable. We tested the effectiveness of an LCP model constructed using literature review, expert opinion, and the relative distribution of land-cover types present at roadside observations of Martes pennanti (Fisher). The model was then used to predict road-crossing corridors of Fishers, Lynx rufus (Bobcat), and Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) within our study area in northern New Hampshire. Roadside data were collected through track surveys from 5 Dec 2005-25 May 2006. Our analysis demonstrated that least-cost modeling successfully identified roadside wildlife corridors for Fishers and Bobcats, but not for American Black Bears.


Burger J.,Rutgers University | Niles L.J.,Conserve Wildlife | Porter R.R.,800 Quinard Court | Dey A.D.,Endangered and Nongame Program | And 2 more authors.
Condor | Year: 2012

Surveys and banding records of Calidris canutus rufa indicate that Red Knots migrate mainly north and south through Massachusetts, Delaware Bay, and Virginia, and winter in Florida and South America. We fitted 40 adult Red Knots with geolocators at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Massachusetts, during fall migration (2009), and in this paper report on the locations of migration and wintering along the Atlantic coast of the United States of eight recaptured knots. The knots' migration patterns varied: four birds wintered along the U.S. Atlantic coast, and the rest went to the Caribbean islands or the northern edge of South America. Knots spent 58 to 75 days in Monomoy Refuge before migrating south in November. Seven of the eight stopped along the U.S. Atlantic coast for relatively long periods. For the six with complete yearly cycles, the total time spent along the Atlantic coast averaged 218 days (range 121-269 days). All eight knots crossed the Atlantic outer continental shelf from two to six times. Areas of use were Monomoy, Long Island, New Jersey, Maryland, the Outer Banks of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida. These data indicate that Red Knots moving through Massachusetts in the fall had variable migration patterns, spent considerable periods of their life cycle along the Atlantic coast, and each knot followed a separate and distinct path, which suggests that knots can be at risk along the Atlantic coast for a substantial period of their life cycle. © The Cooper Ornithological Society 2012.


Hawkins A.D.,Loughine Ltd | Pembroke A.E.,Normandeau Associates | Popper A.N.,University of Maryland University College
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries | Year: 2014

The expansion of shipping and aquatic industrial activities in recent years has led to growing concern about the effects of man-made sounds on aquatic life. Sources include (but are not limited to) pleasure boating, fishing, the shipping of goods, offshore exploration for oil and gas, dredging, construction of bridges, harbors, oil and gas platforms, wind farms and other renewable energy devices, and the use of sonar by commercial and military vessels. There are very substantial gaps in our understanding of the effects of these sounds, especially for fishes and invertebrates. Currently, it is almost impossible to come to clear conclusions on the nature and levels of man-made sound that have potential to cause effects upon these animals. In order to develop a better understanding of effects of man-made sound, this paper identifies the most critical information needs and data gaps on the effects of various sounds on fishes, fisheries, and invertebrates resulting from the use of sound-generating devices. It highlights the major issues and discusses the information currently available on each of the information needs and data gaps. The paper then identifies the critical questions concerning the effects of man-made sounds on aquatic life for which answers are not readily available and articulates the types of information needed to fulfill each of these drivers for information—the key information gaps. Finally, a list of priorities for research and development is presented. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

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