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A norm is a group-held belief about how members should behave in a given context. Sociologists describe norms as informal understandings that govern individuals' behavior in society, while psychologists have adopted a more general definition, recognizing smaller group units, such as a team or an office, may also endorse norms separate or in addition to cultural or societal expectations. The psychological definition emphasizes social norms' behavioral component, stating norms have two dimensions: how much behavior is exhibited and how much the group approves of that behavior.Norms running counter to the behaviors of the overarching society or culture may be transmitted and maintained within small subgroups of society. For example, Crandall noted that certain groups have a rate of bulimia, a publicly recognized life-threatening disease, that is much higher than society as a whole. Social norms have a way of maintaining order and organizing groups. Wikipedia.

Akgunduz O.S.,NORM | Tunali S.,Izmir University of Economics
International Journal of Production Research

A mixed-model assembly line (MMAL) is a type of production line which is capable of producing a variety of different product models simultaneously and continuously. The design and planning of such assembly lines involves several long- and short-term problems. Among these problems, determining the sequence of products to be produced has received considerable attention from the researchers. This problem is known as the Mixed-Model Assembly Line Sequencing Problem (MMALSP). An important issue that complicates the sequencing problem is its combinatorial nature. Typically, an enormous number of possible production sequences exist, even for relatively small problems, so that finding the optimal solution is usually impractical. Due to the complexity of the problem, in recent years, a growing number of researchers have employed genetic algorithms (GAs). This paper reviews the genetic algorithm based MMAL sequencing approaches presented in the literature and provides two hierarchical classification schemes to classify academic efforts according to both specifications of MMALSP and specifications of GA-based approaches. Moreover, future research directions have been identified and are suggested. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

Microglial activation is implicated in delayed tissue damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Activation of microglia causes up-regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, with the release of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxicity. Propofol appears to have antiinflammatory actions. The authors evaluated the neuroprotective effects of propofol after TBI and examined in vivo and in vitro whether such actions reflected modulation of NADPH oxidase. Adult male rats were subjected to moderate lateral fluid percussion TBI. Effect of propofol on brain microglial activation and functional recovery was assessed up to 28 days postinjury. By using primary microglial and BV2 cell cultures, the authors examined propofol modulation of lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ-induced microglial reactivity and neurotoxicity. Propofol improved cognitive recovery after TBI in novel object recognition test (48 ± 6% for propofol [n = 15] vs. 30 ± 4% for isoflurane [n = 14]; P = 0.005). The functional improvement with propofol was associated with limited microglial activation and decreased cortical lesion volume and neuronal loss. Propofol also attenuated lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-induced microglial activation in vitro, with reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interlukin-1β, reactive oxygen species, and NADPH oxidase. Microglial-induced neurotoxicity in vitro was also markedly reduced by propofol. The protective effect of propofol was attenuated when the NADPH oxidase subunit p22 was knocked down by small interfering RNA. Moreover, propofol reduced the expression of p22 and gp91, two key components of NADPH oxidase, after TBI. The neuroprotective effects of propofol after TBI appear to be mediated, in part, through the inhibition of NADPH oxidase. Source

Ince U.,NORM | Guden M.,Izmir Institute of Technology
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology

A set of temperature-dependent friction coefficients was developed to increase the accuracy of finite element (FE) simulations of cold bolt forging. The initially attained friction coefficients at different temperatures were calibrated with the iterations between the experimental and thermomechanical model extrusion test loads. The constant friction coefficient and the determined set of friction coefficients as function of temperature were then implemented to the simulations of the cold bolt-forging processes. Further calibrations and model validations were made based on the temperature measurements of the workpiece in the actual bolt-forging processes. To show the advantages of developed temperature-dependent friction coefficients, the loads of four different bolt-forging processes were compared with the thermomechanical model loads calculated using the constant friction and temperature-dependent friction coefficients. The modeling results indicated that the use of temperature-dependent friction coefficients in the FE simulations resulted in nearer temperature distributions and the loads of the workpiece during forging as compared with the use of a constant friction coefficient. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London. Source

Coleman C.N.,NORM | Love R.R.,United States The International Breast Cancer Research Foundation
Science translational medicine

Management of the cancer burden in low- and lower-middle-income countries requires global partnerships between cancer-care mentors from high-income countries and community health workers familiar with the local circumstances. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science. Source

Adequate vitamin D intake and its status as well outdoor physical activity are important not only for normal bone development and Ca-P metabolism, but for optimal function of many organs and tissues throughout the body. Due to documented changes in dietary habits and physical activity level, both observed in growing children and adults, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency is continuously increasing. National Consultants and experts in this field established the Polish recommendations for prophylactic vitamin D supplementation in infants, toddlers, children and adolescents as well as in adults, including pregnant and lactating women based on current literature review. Taking into consideration pleyotropic vitamin D action and safety aspects serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) level of 20-60 ng/ml (50-750 nmol/l) in children and 30-80 ng/ml (75-200 nmol/I) in adults is considered as optimal. Sunlight exposure inducing vitamin D production in the skin is main endogen source of vitamin D in the body but sunscreens may reduce skin synthesis by 90%. In Poland, skin synthesis is effective only from April to September so other sources of vitamin D such as diet and supplements play an important role. All newborns should be supplemented with 400 IU/d of vitamin D beginning from the first few days of life and continue during infancy. In formula fed infants vitamin D intake from the diet should be taken into account. In preterm infants higher total vitamin D intake (400-800 IU/day) is recommended till 40 weeks post conception. Total vitamin D intake in children and adolescents required from all sources (diet and/or supplements) should be 400 IU/d between October and March and throughout the whole year in case of inadequate vitamin D skin synthesis during the summer months. In overweight/obese children supplementation with higher dosage of vitamin D up to 800-1000 IU/d should be considered. Adults require 800-1000 IU/d of vitamin D. In pregnant and lactating women such supplementation is recommended in case of inadequate intake from diet and/or skin synthesis supplementation. Monitoring of serum 25-OHD level to define optimal dosage should be considered. Source

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