A norm is a group-held belief about how members should behave in a given context. Sociologists describe norms as informal understandings that govern individuals' behavior in society, while psychologists have adopted a more general definition, recognizing smaller group units, such as a team or an office, may also endorse norms separate or in addition to cultural or societal expectations. The psychological definition emphasizes social norms' behavioral component, stating norms have two dimensions: how much behavior is exhibited and how much the group approves of that behavior.Norms running counter to the behaviors of the overarching society or culture may be transmitted and maintained within small subgroups of society. For example, Crandall noted that certain groups have a rate of bulimia, a publicly recognized life-threatening disease, that is much higher than society as a whole. Social norms have a way of maintaining order and organizing groups. Wikipedia.
Akgunduz O.S.,NORM |
Tunali S.,Izmir University of Economics
International Journal of Production Research | Year: 2011
A mixed-model assembly line (MMAL) is a type of production line which is capable of producing a variety of different product models simultaneously and continuously. The design and planning of such assembly lines involves several long- and short-term problems. Among these problems, determining the sequence of products to be produced has received considerable attention from the researchers. This problem is known as the Mixed-Model Assembly Line Sequencing Problem (MMALSP). An important issue that complicates the sequencing problem is its combinatorial nature. Typically, an enormous number of possible production sequences exist, even for relatively small problems, so that finding the optimal solution is usually impractical. Due to the complexity of the problem, in recent years, a growing number of researchers have employed genetic algorithms (GAs). This paper reviews the genetic algorithm based MMAL sequencing approaches presented in the literature and provides two hierarchical classification schemes to classify academic efforts according to both specifications of MMALSP and specifications of GA-based approaches. Moreover, future research directions have been identified and are suggested. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.
Anesthesiology | Year: 2013
Microglial activation is implicated in delayed tissue damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Activation of microglia causes up-regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, with the release of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxicity. Propofol appears to have antiinflammatory actions. The authors evaluated the neuroprotective effects of propofol after TBI and examined in vivo and in vitro whether such actions reflected modulation of NADPH oxidase. Adult male rats were subjected to moderate lateral fluid percussion TBI. Effect of propofol on brain microglial activation and functional recovery was assessed up to 28 days postinjury. By using primary microglial and BV2 cell cultures, the authors examined propofol modulation of lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ-induced microglial reactivity and neurotoxicity. Propofol improved cognitive recovery after TBI in novel object recognition test (48 ± 6% for propofol [n = 15] vs. 30 ± 4% for isoflurane [n = 14]; P = 0.005). The functional improvement with propofol was associated with limited microglial activation and decreased cortical lesion volume and neuronal loss. Propofol also attenuated lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-induced microglial activation in vitro, with reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interlukin-1β, reactive oxygen species, and NADPH oxidase. Microglial-induced neurotoxicity in vitro was also markedly reduced by propofol. The protective effect of propofol was attenuated when the NADPH oxidase subunit p22 was knocked down by small interfering RNA. Moreover, propofol reduced the expression of p22 and gp91, two key components of NADPH oxidase, after TBI. The neuroprotective effects of propofol after TBI appear to be mediated, in part, through the inhibition of NADPH oxidase.
Coleman C.N.,NORM |
Love R.R.,United States The International Breast Cancer Research Foundation
Science translational medicine | Year: 2014
Management of the cancer burden in low- and lower-middle-income countries requires global partnerships between cancer-care mentors from high-income countries and community health workers familiar with the local circumstances. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Medycyna wieku rozwojowego | Year: 2010
Adequate vitamin D intake and its status as well outdoor physical activity are important not only for normal bone development and Ca-P metabolism, but for optimal function of many organs and tissues throughout the body. Due to documented changes in dietary habits and physical activity level, both observed in growing children and adults, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency is continuously increasing. National Consultants and experts in this field established the Polish recommendations for prophylactic vitamin D supplementation in infants, toddlers, children and adolescents as well as in adults, including pregnant and lactating women based on current literature review. Taking into consideration pleyotropic vitamin D action and safety aspects serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) level of 20-60 ng/ml (50-750 nmol/l) in children and 30-80 ng/ml (75-200 nmol/I) in adults is considered as optimal. Sunlight exposure inducing vitamin D production in the skin is main endogen source of vitamin D in the body but sunscreens may reduce skin synthesis by 90%. In Poland, skin synthesis is effective only from April to September so other sources of vitamin D such as diet and supplements play an important role. All newborns should be supplemented with 400 IU/d of vitamin D beginning from the first few days of life and continue during infancy. In formula fed infants vitamin D intake from the diet should be taken into account. In preterm infants higher total vitamin D intake (400-800 IU/day) is recommended till 40 weeks post conception. Total vitamin D intake in children and adolescents required from all sources (diet and/or supplements) should be 400 IU/d between October and March and throughout the whole year in case of inadequate vitamin D skin synthesis during the summer months. In overweight/obese children supplementation with higher dosage of vitamin D up to 800-1000 IU/d should be considered. Adults require 800-1000 IU/d of vitamin D. In pregnant and lactating women such supplementation is recommended in case of inadequate intake from diet and/or skin synthesis supplementation. Monitoring of serum 25-OHD level to define optimal dosage should be considered.
Norm | Date: 2010-01-29
A timer includes a case, a shaft, a cam wheel, a drive mechanism, and a plurality of switch blades disposed within the case. The shaft is rotatably and reciprocally movably disposed in the case. The cam wheel is pivoted on the shaft and rotates together with the shaft when setting, or rotates independently by the drive mechanism. The cam wheel includes a plurality of cam tracks on one side surface thereof and a plurality of ratchets and grooves on a circular rim thereof. The drive mechanism contacts the ratchets to drive the cam wheel to rotate relative to the shaft. The switch blades respectively contact the cam tracks of the cam wheel, and correspondingly generate an electrical connection/disconnection. When the shaft moves to the setting position and the cam wheel being rotated by the user, a flexible element touches the grooves formed on the circular rim results a tactile feedback.
Norm | Date: 2016-03-08
Ironmengery, in the nature of metal nuts and bolts, small hardware of metal, namely nails, ball joints, studs, screws and washers, spacers and bushings, pipes and tubes of metal and metal fittings.
Norm | Date: 2015-07-01
A quick coupler for coupling an attachment, such as a digging bucket, to an evacuator machine. The quick coupler includes a first fixed jaw for a first coupling pin of the attachment. The quick coupler includes a latch cooperating with the first fixed jaw, which is moveable to a latched position for retaining the first coupling pin. A moveable jaw is provided that is able to slide, under power of a hydraulic ram, to a closed position retaining the second coupling pin. A locking arm assumes a locked position, while the latch assumes the latched position, preventing withdrawal of the moveable jaw from the closed position. Consequently, in the event of a hydraulic failure the locking arm simultaneously locks both the first attachment coupling pin, by means of the latch, and the second attachment coupling pin by means of preventing movement of the movable jaw from the closed position.
Norm | Date: 2017-01-11
Norm | Date: 2013-01-11
A heat exchanger of a desiccant wheel dehumidifier, disclosed in the disclosure, includes a frame and multiple heat exchange platy tubes. The frame has an air inlet and an air outlet. The multiple heat exchange platy tubes are fixed on the frame and are substantially arranged side by side with each other. Every two of the multiple heat exchange platy tubes adjacent to each other are separated at an interval from each other to form a first flow channel. Each of the multiple heat exchange platy tubes includes a main body and at least one spacing wall. The main body has multiple second flow channels therein. The at least one spacing wall is located between two of the multiple second flow channels adjacent to each other. The air inlet and the air outlet communicate with the multiple second flow channels.