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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERA-NET-Cofund | Phase: LCE-26-2016 | Award Amount: 31.30M | Year: 2017

The GeoERA proposal is put forward by the national and regional Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) of Europe. Its overall goal is to integrate the GSOs information and knowledge on subsurface energy, water and raw material resources, to support sustainable use of the subsurface in addressing Europes grand challenges. The GeoERA consortium will organise and co-fund together with the EC a joint call for transnational research projects that address the development of 1) interoperable, pan-European data and information services on the distribution of geo-energy, groundwater and raw material resources; 2) common assessment frameworks and methodologies supporting better understanding and management of the water-energy-raw materials nexus and potential impacts and risks of subsurface use; 3) knowledge and services aimed at European, national and regional policy makers, industry and other stakeholders to support a more integrated and efficient management and more responsible and publicly accepted exploitation and use of the subsurface. The transnational projects selected in the call will be implemented by the consortium partners themselves, who provide their co-funding in-kind. GeoERA will contribute to the overall EU objective of building the ERA through enhanced cooperation and coordination of national and regional Geological Survey research programmes. GeoERA will also include forward looking activities, including the creation of opportunities for future collaborative research, and the feasibility assessment of an Article 185 initiative in Applied Geoscience as follow-up to the GeoERA ERA-NET towards the development of the ultimate goal of delivering a Geological Service for Europe.


Heine C.,University of Sydney | Muller R.D.,University of Sydney | Steinberger B.,Norges Geologiske Undersokelse | DiCaprio L.,University of Sydney
Tectonophysics | Year: 2010

It is well documented that the Cenozoic progressive flooding of Australia, contemporaneous with a eustatic sea level fall, requires a downward tilting of the Australian Plate towards the SE Asian subduction system. Previously, this large-scale, mantle-convection driven dynamic topography effect has been approximated by computing the time-dependent vertical shifts and tilts of a plane, but the observed subsidence and uplift anomalies indicate a more complex interplay between time-dependent mantle convection and plate motion. We combine plate kinematics with a global mantle backward-advection model based on shear-wave mantle tomography, paleogeographic data, eustatic sea level estimates and basin stratigraphy to reconstruct the Australian flooding history for the last 70 Myrs on a continental scale. We compute time-dependent dynamic surface topography and continental inundation of a digital elevation model adjusted for sediment accumulation. Our model reveals two evolving dynamic topography lows, over which the Australian plate has progressively moved. We interpret the southern low to be caused by sinking slab material with an origin along the eastern Gondwana subduction zone in the Cretaceous, whereas the northern low, which first straddles northern Australia in the Oligocene, is mainly attributable to material subducted north and northeast of Australia. Our model accounts for the Paleogene exposure of the Gulf of Carpentaria region at a time when sea level was much higher than today, and explains anomalous Late Tertiary subsidence on Australia's northern, western and southern margins. The resolution of our model, which excludes short-wavelength mantle density anomalies and is restricted to depths larger than 220 km, is not sufficient to model the two well recorded episodes of major transgressions in South Australia in the Eocene and Miocene. However, the overall, long-wavelength spatio-temporal pattern of Australia's inundation record is well captured by combining our modelled dynamic topography with a recent eustatic sea level curve. We suggest that the apparent Late Cenozoic northward tilting of Australia was a stepwise function of South Australia first moving away northwards from the Gondwana subduction-related dynamic topography low in the Oligocene, now found under the Australian-Antarctic Discordance, followed by a drawing down of northern Australia as it overrode a slab burial ground now underlying much of the northern half of Australia, starting in the Miocene. Our model suggests that today's geography of Australia is strongly dependent on mantle forces. Without mantle convection, which draws Australia down by up to 300 m, nearly all of Australia's continental shelves would be exposed. We conclude that dissecting the interplay between eustasy and mantle-driven dynamic topography is critical for understanding hinterland uplift, basin subsidence, the formation and destruction of shallow epeiric seas and their facies distribution, but also for the evolution of petroleum systems. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Unternehr P.,Total S.A. | Peron-Pinvidic G.,Norges Geologiske Undersokelse | Manatschal G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Sutra E.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Petroleum Geoscience | Year: 2010

The discovery of giant hydrocarbon reservoirs in the pre-salt sequence of the deep-water Brazilian rifted margin together with the new acquisition of high-quality reflection and refraction seismic surveys across many rifted margins worldwide has attracted the interest of industry and researchers to deep-water rifted margins. For the first time, the new data sets enable the imaging and description of the pre-salt structures, which indicate that deep-water rifted margins are very different from what classical models had predicted thus far. Instead of the expected fault-bounded basins and a sharp ocean-continent boundary, the new data suggest the existence of a sag basin lying on hyper-extended crust with little indication for brittle high-angle faulting, a transitional domain between continental and oceanic crust showing neither characteristics of oceanic nor continental material, and very asymmetrical distal conjugate rifted margins. These observations raise significant doubts on the validity of the classical concepts used in rheology, mechanics and isostasy to explain extensional systems leading to seafloor spreading. They also require new concepts and more data in order to understand how these rifted margins evolved in time and space. This has important implications for the exploration and evaluation of petroleum systems in the frontier areas of hydrocarbon exploration. In this study we publish two multi-channel seismic sections across the Angola and conjugate Brazilian rifted margins that we consider as 'type' sections for hyperextended magma-poor rifted margins in the South Atlantic. The aim of this study is to discuss various possible interpretations and models to explain the high-resolution seismic images presented in this paper. © 2010 EAGE/Geological Society of London.


Peron-Pinvidic G.,Norges Geologiske Undersokelse | Manatschal G.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Petroleum Geoscience | Year: 2010

The conjunction of high-quality seismic surveys, deep sea drilling, and progress in numerical modelling has changed the way of thinking about how continents rift and oceans form. In particular the discovery of exhumed continental mantle and hyper-extended crust in deep-water rifted margins has led to a paradigm shift in research into the evolution of rifted margins. Although rifted margins now appear to be more complex and their architecture more diverse than previously thought, their study worldwide shows that there are in fact a limited number of structures observed in seismic images that characterize their architecture. These 'building stones' include crustal blocks of various sizes, often referred to as microcontinents, continental ribbons, H-blocks, extensional allochthons and outer highs. The aim of this paper is to define the characteristics of these continental blocks and to describe their relationship and position within the rifted margins, and to understand the underlying processes that govern their formation. We propose, using the example of the North Atlantic, that these crustal blocks are the result of specific rift processes that correspond to the sequential evolution from stretching, to thinning and exhumation of the continental lithosphere. We show that the relationship between the various rift structures provides fundamental insights into the controlling processes that thin and finally rupture continental lithosphere. © 2010 EAGE/Geological Society of London.


Hermanns R.L.,Norges Geologiske Undersokelse | Niedermann S.,Helmholtz Center Potsdam
Special Paper of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2011

Two earthquakes are recorded in lake sediments of a former rock-avalanche-dammed lake at the outlet of the Calchaquíes valleys, Argentina. The lake existed between 13,830 ± 790 and 4810 ± 500 a, as indicated by 10Be exposure ages of the landslide deposits that impounded that lake and caused the dam erosion. Two reverse faults, with buckle folds in the footwall and slump folds in the hanging wall, indicate that two earthquakes took place while the lake sediments were water saturated, i.e., during the lake phase. Two folds only a few meters apart occur within the same lake sediment sequence over a distance of 1.3 km on two layers. Within the same two layers, there are mixed zones of convolute bedding extending several hundred meters toward the center of the former lake, which are interpreted to be seismites. These disturbed zones occur also in other subbasins of the former lake that were not affected by faulting and folding. One seismite horizon was AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) 14C dated to 7500 ± 70 cal yr B.P. by organic material. This age agrees with the 10Be surface exposure age of 7820 ± 830 a for a cluster of four landslides 40 km NNW of the outlet of this lake, suggesting that a strong earthquake occurred at this time. © 2011 The Geological Society of America.


Penna I.M.,University of Buenos Aires | Hermanns R.L.,Norges Geologiske Undersokelse | Niedermann S.,Helmholtz Center Potsdam | Folguera A.,University of Buenos Aires
Bulletin of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2011

Quaternary tectonic activity in the transition area between the Central and Patagonian Andes is closely associated with an anomalous cluster of rockslides: 19 rockslides with volumes up to 4 × 109 m3 developed in plateau basalts. We divided them into two groups: (A) rockslides related to neotectonic activity and (B) rockslides not related to neotectonic activity. Thirteen rockslides, with a total volume of ~10 km3, which lie on either folds or faults, have been displaced parallel to the structures and perpendicular to the valleyaxis, and they exhibit headscarps several kilometersaway from the valley axis. Most of them are larger than 109 m3, and are generally of rock avalanche type with a high degree of crushing of rocks, although local relief in some cases does not exceed 200 m. Nine rockslides with a total volume of 8.9 km3 are related to folds, while four with a total volume of 1.3 km3 are related to faults. The six rockslides not related to neotectonic activity have a totalvolume of 0.25 km3 (of which the largest one accounts for 0.17 km3), and are rotational slides and block topples with a low degree of rock fragmentation, although local relief is up to 400 m. The 3He and 21Ne surface exposure ages for six of these slides, as well as relative age assessment based on stratigraphic relation with glacial deposits and the drainage development on the rockslide deposit, suggest that the rockslide ages spread rather randomly betweenpre-glacial and mid Holocene, discarding climatic conditions as a common triggering factor. The absence of structures that can represent ideal sliding planes shows that rock fracturing due to neotectonic activity is a major conditioning factor for failures and that the magnitude of landslides is strongly controlled by the type of deformation. © 2011 Geological Society of America.


Butler J.P.,Dalhousie University | Jamieson R.A.,Dalhousie University | Steenkamp H.M.,Dalhousie University | Robinson P.,Norges Geologiske Undersokelse
Journal of Metamorphic Geology | Year: 2013

Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks from the Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway record subduction of Baltican continental crust during the Silurian to Devonian Scandian continental collision. Here, we report a new coesite locality from the island of Harøya in the Nordøyane UHP domain, the most northerly yet documented in the WGR, and reconstruct the P-T history of the host eclogite. The coesite-eclogite lies within migmatitic orthogneiss, interpreted as Baltica basement, that underwent multiple stages of deformation and partial melting during exhumation. Two stages of metamorphism have been deduced from petrography and mineral chemistry. The early (M1) assemblage comprises garnet (Pyr38-41Alm35-37Grs23-26Spss1) and omphacite (Na0.35-0.40Ca0.57-0.60Fe2+ 0.08-0.10Mg0.53Fe3+ 0.01AlVI 0.40-0.42)2(AlIV 0.03-0.06Si1.94-1.97)2O6, with subordinate phengite, kyanite, rutile, coesite and apatite, all present as inclusions in garnet. The later (M2) assemblage comprises retrograde rims on garnet (Pyr38-40Alm40-44Grs16-21Spss1), diopside rims on omphacite (Na0.04-0.06Ca0.88-0.91Fe2+ 0.09-0.13Mg0.81-83Fe3+ 0.08AlVI 0.03)2(AlIV 0.07-0.08Si1.92-1.93)2O6, plagioclase, biotite, pargasite, orthopyroxene and ilmenite. Metamorphic P-T conditions estimated using thermocalc are ∼3GPa and 760°C for M1, consistent with the presence of coesite, and ∼1GPa and 813°C for M2, consistent with possible phengite dehydration melting during decompression. Comparison with other WGR eclogites containing the same assemblage shows a broad similarity in peak (M1) P-T conditions, confirming suggestions that large portions of the WGR were buried to depths of ∼100km during Scandian subduction. Field relations suggest that exhumation, accompanied by widespread partial melting, involved an early phase of top-northwest shearing, followed by subhorizontal sinistral shearing along northwest-dipping foliations, related to regional transtension. The present results add to the growing body of data on the distribution, maximum P-T conditions, and exhumation paths of WGR coesite-eclogites and their host rocks that is required to constrain quantitative models for the formation and exhumation of UHP metamorphic rocks during the Scandian collision. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Reimann C.,Norges Geologiske Undersokelse | Birke M.,Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe BGR | Filzmoser P.,Vienna University of Technology
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2012

It is well established that minute amounts of chemical elements will leach from bottle materials (glass or PET - polyethylene terephthalate) to water stored in such bottles. This study investigated whether leaching increases with storage temperature. For glass bottles this is clearly the case for a long list of elements: Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, K, La, Li, Mg, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, U, V, W and Zr. However, for glass bottles drinking water maximum admissible concentration values as defined by European authorities are not exceeded even after 1. week of leaching at 80. °C. The critical temperature limit where leaching substantially increases for many elements appears to be 45. °C. For PET bottles, Sb is the only element where leaching is observed at all temperatures and again leaching strongly increases at 45. °C. For PET bottles Sb concentrations observed in water after 1. week storage at 80. °C reach almost four times the maximum admissible concentration values for drinking water but do not exceed the relevant higher limit for food (including water) packaged in PET. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SC5-16-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 1.16M | Year: 2016

Global demand for minerals is growing rapidly, driven by rapid population growth, urbanisation and an increasingly diverse range of technical applications. Global material supply chains linking the extraction, transport and processing stages of raw materials have become increasingly complex and today involve multiple players and product components. An interactive platform that provides transparency about existing approaches and information gaps concerning global material flows is needed to understand these global supply chains; developing this capability is critical for maintaining competitiveness in the European economy. Against this backdrop, the proposed MinFuture project aims to identify, integrate, and develop expertise for global material flow analysis and scenario modelling. Specific activities include: the analysis of barriers and gateways for delivering more transparent and interoperable materials information; the assessment of existing model approaches for global material flow analysis, including the demand- supply forecasting methods; the delivery of a common methodology which integrates mineral data, information and knowledge across national boundaries and between governmental and non-governmental organisations; the development of recommendations for a roadmap to implement the common methodology at international level; the creation of a web-portal to provide a central access point for material flow information, including links to existing data sources, models, tools and analysis. MinFuture brings together 16 international partners from across universities, public organisations and companies, to deliver new insight, strategic intelligence and a clear roadmap for enabling effective access to global material information.


Reimann C.,Norges Geologiske Undersokelse | Birke M.,Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe BGR | Filzmoser P.,Vienna University of Technology
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2010

A test comparing concentrations of 57 chemical elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Te, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn and Zr) determined by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) in 294 samples of the same bottled water (predominantly mineral water) sold in the European Union in glass and PET bottles demonstrates significant (Wilcoxon rank sum test, α= 0.05) differences in median concentrations for Sb, Ce, Pb, Al, Zr, Ti, Th, La, Pr, Fe, Zn, Nd, Sn, Cr, Tb, Er, Gd, Bi, Sm, Y, Lu, Dy, Yb, Tm, Nb and Cu. Antimony has a 21× higher median value in bottled water when sold in PET bottles (0.33 vs. 0.016μg/L). Glass contaminates the water with Ce (19× higher than in PET bottles), Pb (14×), Al (7×), Zr (7×), Ti, Th (5×), La (5×), Pr, Fe, Zn, Nd, Sn, Cr, Tb (2×), Er, Gd, Bi, Sm, Y, Lu, Yb, Tm, Nb and Cu (1.4×). Testing an additional 136 bottles of the same water sold in green and clear glass bottles demonstrates an important influence of colour, the water sold in green glass shows significantly higher concentrations in Cr (7.3×, 1.0 vs. 0.14μg/L), Th (1.9×), La, Zr, Nd, Ce (1.6×), Pr, Nb, Ti, Fe (1.3×), Co (1.3×) and Er (1.1×).One hundred and twenty-six bottles of three different materials (glass, hard PET and soft PET) in 5 principal colours (clear, light and dark green and blue, brown) were subsequently washed and then filled with high purity water (18.2MΩcm). A portion of the bottles where left at the original average pH of the water (pH 6.5) while the remaining bottles were acidified to pH 3.5 with HNO3. Concentrations of the same 57 elements as above were determined after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15, 30, 56, 80 and 150days of leaching. Results substantiate the observations from the direct comparison of the same water sold in different bottle types (colour). For most elements leaching is enhanced at pH 3.5, and dark coloured bottles leach more than clear bottles, independent of bottle material. Values are still on the increase at the end of the test at 150days. At that date the leachates showed a maximum concentration of 0.45μg/L Sb, 0.3μg/L Ce, 0.61μg/L Pb, 68μg/L Al and 0.06μg/L Cr (all in glass at pH 3.5). None of the leachates approaches the maximum concentrations for drinking water as defined in European jurisdiction. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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